Created  Jan. 18, 2013                   updated        Jun 13 018                                      Truth 1's Related Info site

Paul Yves Pezron -- The Antiquities of Nations;

more particularly of the Celtae or Gauls, taken to be originally the same people as our ancient Britains.

Book 1: Chapter: This is Part 1 of 2, 
Truth1 Intro
Title Page, Dedication
1  1-6
2  6-11
3  11-21
4  21-32
5  32-36
6   36-40
7   40-44
8   44-49
9   49-56
10   56-62
11   62-73
12   73-85
14   90-100
15   100-108
16  108-113
17  113-122
18  122-128
19  128-133
20  133-140
comprising Paul Pezron's Antiquities of Nations - thru the end of Book 1. The remainder of Pezron's book is to be in Part 2 of 2, also linked at the end of this Part 1.

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Truth1 Intro
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I am in the process of translating the English 18th century (1706) publication of Paul Yves Pezron's original French work of the same name. Mr. David Jones of the time was the translator of the work into the English of the time. It is a remarkable work with much to recommend to it. But oddly, it exists without much acceptance or discussion. Doubly odd for me since I am of the conviction that this is likely, after the Bible, the best and most ancient account of a time period long since forgotten and lost.

And while the Bible was a history of, among other things, a particular group of Hebrews who later came to be known commonly today as Jews, Pezron's work focuses on a particular group that descended from Japheth, Noah's 1st son, by way of Gomer, Japheth's 1st son, who is said to be the father of both Gothic/Germanic peoples and more in this book, the Celtic/Gaulic peoples. This is fascinating for many reasons, but since the prophet Hosea took a wife named Gomer, who would cheat on Hosea, by the will (advanced knowledge - prediction) of God. Israel would come to blend quite a bit with "Gomer" over time.

But as well, historians and archaeologists know very little about the past before say 1500 or 1700 BC, if not even 1200 BC, with the one exception being Egypt. Much of man's mythological heritage comes from many real personalities of those dark lost years after Noah and his family came away from the Ark, after it had landed. Perhaps most surprising to me was how powerful and influential these sons of Gomer were in the early history. Pezron fills in many blanks and gives us a good deal of enlightenment. But there are those who will object and protest since the sons of Gomer seem so dominant and advanced, compared to most.

For those who subscribe to racial superiority of some sort or another, they will like these findings. Those who do not like any suggestions of superiority or success, this will be despised. I did not publish this to lend any credibility to theories of superiority. Mine is to determine, as best as I can, what took place in history. Pezron did a great job of proving numerous proofs of reference from many writers of more ancient times, to back his assertions. It helps ad more light to a dim period of time. It should be welcomed by all.

But it is also hard to deny that those of Gomer were very successful and have continued to be so. But since history is a passion of mine and one that does help illuminate the Bible in many respects, I thought it important to get up here so that many more could become aware of this fascinating and useful history.

I have done lots of Deed Research in legal matters in Nova Scotia, Canada, over the last 14 years (2000-2013), helping me to recognize spelling tendencies and odd letter forms, and along with a lot of study of history, I have become familiar with many variants of spelling of names, as well. I am quite familiar with many linguistic variations among languages. I used all these to  modernize the work of Mr. Jones, though really, apart from distinguishing the letters S and F, there is not a lot of difference. Names of ancients are slightly different in many places and Pezron also found many variants and changes over time, in names and identifications.

I kept any unusual spellings and only modernized regular words of no impact or importance. I even kept words like "Englished" which means translated into English. Each page ends with the word beginning the next page. This was so that if pages came loose, one could be sure whether they were consecutive or not and in their proper place. I kept these in, as well.

The printing of both the French and English versions were fraught with problems. The ink soaked into and thru to the other side so that a number of pages were difficult to almost impossible to read but salvageable with some very close reviewing of detail and enlargement. There were pagination errors so that some pages had the wrong numbers. I fixed those and made notes so that people could check the pages on Google books and not get lost.

My goal as been to provide clear searchable and copy-worthy text that this great work might get the attention it deserves and that it be easy to read.
The Greek text, which is not all that much really, but worthy of reading, I have been converting it to Greek fonts so they could be clearly and easily read. the originals were hand written and Pezron used all small letters in a more legible style. Jones used a cursive script for which I could find nothing in existence. So I often compared Pezron's French version Greek words with those of Jones, so that I could as thorough and careful as possible. Again, bother versions are on Google Books scanned. Once you see the mess on many pages, you will be grateful for this work. It had to be done.

 Cursive script is a challenge, not matter what the language is. In Nova Scotia, Canada, the old had written deeds going back to the mid 1800s in general and a couple from late 1700s and some from the early 20th till typewriters came along, about 1931 I think. Cursive styles very and are often a challenge, and certain letters  all seemed to look like i's. There were standard abbreviations, too, and each clerk has a different style.

It is the same with Greek of 1706. Pezron and Jones varied and Jones was tough at times. So I worked it all out so that anyone might easily read this superb work of Paul Pezron.

If you can find any errors, I would appreciate you telling me so I can correct it. If you have any questions, feel free to write me at my email.

I want to try to limit my "injections" into this historical work. But I am sure to have a few. Where I do, they will be in >>these brackets and red letters<< as this is my common way of doing that. I hope you enjoy the book of Paul Pezron.


Title Page, Dedication
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THE ANTIQUITIES OF NATIONS;         More particularly of the         CELTAE or GAULS,
Taken to be Originally the same people as our         Ancient Britains.

Great Variety of Historical, Chronological, and Etymological Discoveries, many of them unknown both to the Greeks and Romans.

  By Monsieur Pezron, Doctor in Divinity, and Abbott of la Charmoye in France.
Englished by Mr. JONES.

Printed by R Janeway, for S Ballard, at the Blue-Ball in Little Britain; and R Burrough, at the Sun and Moon in Cornbill. 1706


To the right Hon. Charles, Lord Halifax, auditor of the receipt of her Majesty's exchequer.

  My Lord,

The learned author of this treatise is so celebrated in his own country, and this his undertaking in particular, was received with that applause, when he first obliged the world in letting it see the light; that I

Pg. A 2

The Epistle Dedicatory

Can not but presume it will meet with a favorable reception from so exalted a genius, as your Lordship’s, even in the Dress it now appears: so unnecessary, not to say undecent, I take the common dedicatory apology to be, of craving pardon for dressing myself to Your Lordship in this manner.

Your Lordship is happy in so extensive a share of literature, and of too discerning a judgment, to overlooking the famous Pezron, the deepest insight into the most secret recesses of antiquity, and with what an admirable chain of history, to say nothing of his other Excellencies, he entertains the curiosities of the Literati. Was there ever any before him

That attempted to trace the origin of the kelp a, with very great probability of truth, where the same people, and spoke the same language, as our ancient Britons did, and their descendants continue to do to this day, so high as Gomer and the Gomarians? And yet this he has done, notwithstanding the revolutions of so many ages, and the several migrations and vicissitudes these people underwent, under the successive names of Sacae, Titans, Celtae, and some others, with so uncommon, a coherence and perspicuity, as can not but be admired and valued by all lovers of antiquity: and your Lordship will not impute it vanity in him, to say, as he now and then does, that he has made

Greater discoveries this way, then the politest Greeks and Romans ever did, or were capable of.

Pardon me, my Lord, for this short excursion in commendation of the author; I own it was needless, and am persuaded he will sufficiently ingratiate himself into your Lordship's good esteem, whenever you are at leisure to Peruse him, during any avocations you may have from the public affairs; and in respect to which, ‘tis no flattery, but an uncontested truth, to aver, that you are, and have been, so eminently useful, that your memory will be revered by posterity, as long as the coinage of England shall bear the impress of the late King, of glorious memory, and

Whilst there are any remains of the public records, for the preservation and methodizing of which, nothing has so much contributed as your Lordship’s zeal and frequent inspection; whatever the rage and malice of the few turbulent, ungrateful and disaffected spirits, may suggest to the contrary.

More such patriots, as your Lordship, we want; for my own part, I cannot forbear felicitating myself, but I have this opportunity to testify how much I honor your virtues, and admire your abilities, and to beg of you to believe, that I am,

my Lord,
        your Lordship's sincerely devoted,
                and most humble servant,

                                                  D. Jones.

There is in the press, and will be shortly published,

Archaeologia Britannica, containing some account, additional to what has been hitherto published of the ancient languages, customs and monuments of the British Isles: from observations and collections in travels through Wales, Cornwall, Basse Bretagne, Ireland and Scotland. By Edward Lhwyd, A.M. Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum. Vol. of the Languages. Fol. This Tome contains,

I.                    comparative in a mall a gene, or general observations relating to alteration of languages.

II.                  A Latin Celtic dictionary, or vocabulary of the original languages of Britain and Ireland, and of the Armorick British.

III.                An Armorick grammar.

IV.                An Armorick English vocabulary.

V.                  A Cornish grammar and vocabulary.

VI.                A British Etymologicon, or the British, collated with the Greek, Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, &c.

VII.              of the method anciently observed amongst the Britains in the names of persons and places; where the Roman names in Britain are paralleled with British names yet remaining, and partly interpreted.

VIII.            A catalog of British manuscripts.

IX.                A grammar of the Irish, or ancient Scottish language.

X.                  An Irish English dictionary.


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i      (1)

Having in this work treated of several things, which are very curious and new, I ought in the first place to let the world know, how and upon what account I have entered upon this subject, and to point out that which is most singular therein. As I was meditating on the holy Scriptures, and more particularly on the 10th chapter of Genesis, which is often very slightly overlooked, I found great difficulties occurred to me therein, the clearing of which must needs be very useful and agreeable: it was in contemplating this part of divine writ for some time, that I was induced to form a design to search into the origin of nations, whose first fathers and founders Moses indicates to us in this chapter. Why was carrying on this work, which is almost finished, it seemed to me that Monsieur Bochart, who was looked upon to

ii      (2)

be one that has writ the best of any upon the subject, might be mistaken in several important matters; and I more particularly took notice, but he said nothing concerning the origin of the Celtae, people better known by the name of Gauls. Seeing therefore we are the descendents of these famous people, for we are in reality born in that country anciently called Gaul, and that the very first beginnings of them are noted in the same chapter of Genesis, together with those of other people, that in process of time replenish the earth with their colonies: I thought I might do my country some service, if I should be able to show the hive from whence we came, and that, by ascending up to the most ancient times, and the very first authors of their original.

I cannot tell whether I have been so fortunate as to find out such obscure things which according to the common vogue are not to be attained to, as being too dark and remote from us: the world must judge of that, and I have some room to hope, I will be somewhat favorably, if they will have but the patience to read over only one half of this undertaking. If I should deceive them, which I have no inclination to do, I shall myself be the first of any that is deceived, because I believe I have, by

iii     (3)

very singular methods and inquiries mounted up as high as the source of our nation, or its original start. Those who have seen somewhat of it, for I've never pretended to make a mystery of what I wrote, have not thought me to be far distant from the truth. If it is not in my fortune to meet with it, I have at least taken all the care I could not to obtrude tales upon the public; or I may rather say impertinences, that tend only to raise the indignation of those that read them: however, they are errors, which most of those have fallen into, that have pretended to find out the antiquity of nations: they have introduced a 1000 extravagancies upon that subject, after adding Annius Viterbus, a fabulous author, if ever there was such a man; and even in respect of those particulars, wherein they have not thought fit to follow him, they have written an abundance of things as ridiculous as the other. As the present age has a relish of that which is good sense, we are to have recourse for it to the right sources, the ancient authors, which I have endeavored to do, and they have been my guides in those frightful, obscure, and untrodden paths.

  iv     (4)

I am not therefore to be blamed for saying that Gomer, who, according to the Scripture, was Japhet’s eldest son, and the grandson of Noah, ought to be looked upon as the first and true father of the Gauls, commonly called Galatians by the Greeks; I have learned that from Josephus his Jewish antiquities, and after him from Eustathius of Antioch, St. Isodore of Seville, and some others, and when these things are a little weighed, they will be found to be neither slightly spoken, nor far distant from truth. The Gauls therefore, according to their authority, are the poor stare of Gomer, and they had good reason to say, that the first name they went by, well yet in upper Asia, was that of Gomarites, or Gomarians; after which they had doubt of Sacae, or Saques, and under that became very famous in the countries of Margiana and Bactriana. But having in after ages multiplied apace, and in several incursions made themselves masters of the lesser Asia, Thrace, the Isle of Crete, and all Greece, they affected the name Titans, or the children of the earth; and it was under this name, so much celebrated by the ancient poets and historians, that they

v      (5)

perform such mighty things, both in part of Asia, and all Europe over, for the space of about 300 years: resides, we shall find, the sum of these people having separated from the rest, who continued in operation, and seized on the northern parts above the Euxine Sea, and far beyond the Danube, were called Cimbri, or Cimbrians, that is, men of war; and these were they which the great poets called Cimmerians; after which these warlike people took the name of Celtae, when they settled in the provinces of Europe and lastly, they had the name of Gauls, after they had thoroughly fixed themselves in those rich countries, situate between the ocean and the Rhine, and between the Alps and the Pyrenees, being those wherein we dwell; though these (two?) names of Celtae and Gauls, came in a manner to the same thing, signifying potent and valiant men.

As I foresee this preface will prove somewhat larger than I intended, I beg the reader's patience, and that he would not be disappointed, for I dare assure him, that the novelty of the things that will occur to him, will so excite his curiosity, that he will not be wearied there with. To return therefore

vi     (6)

to the Gauls, this famous people, several ages before they had this name, were, as I observed already, called Titans, well they were possessed of the provinces of the lesser Asia, and all these of Greece, and the neighboring countries. Its not to be conceived what great and extraordinary things they performed under this name, and that, above 2000 years before our Savior was born; for if we give credit to history, they seem whoever erected an empire, that reached from the Euphrates to the utmost parts of Spain and Mauritania, and was not much short of that of Rome. There is some slight mention made of them in the Scripture, that sometimes speaks of these people under the name of Titans, and other whiles of giants, for they were of huge stature, and in their time masters of the earth, qui Terrae Dominati sunt. The ancient fathers, and those who have wrote apologies for the primitive chieftains, in defending the true religion, to agree, that they were very potent; I say, in defending the true religion; for they strenuously opposed paganism, found it was grounded pureley on false worship, and that these of the Titans who were called Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter, were not gods, as the Greeks and Romans vainly

vii    (7)

believed, but potent princes and mortal man: the ancient fathers plainly saw it was so, though they could not tell from whence does Titan princes came, who were so renowned and fables, nor of what race or origin they were of: this is that which you will not only distinctly, but also a large meet with here; and which is yet more, even with all its circumstances, that makes it a true history, and cleared from the those fictions which have obscured and disfigured it.

You'll have the pleasure to know who this Uranus was, which profane authors have foolishly called heaven, though he was no more than an earthly friends, and the son of back mom, when ancient times ruled in Cappadocia and in Phrygia: you shall see that Sadorn, in Latin called Saturnus, the son of Uranus, after many intrigues and violences, seized on the empire of the Titans, in prejudice to his elder brother; and that assuming the purple with the crown, he was the first of them the took the title of King upon him. It will be also amazing to find, that his son Prince Jou, afterwards called Jupiter, went to dethrone his father, and after a bloody war by sea and land, for 10 years together, possessed himself of his vast dominions. Here you have all

viii   (8)

these matters, with the place where Jupiter was born, is being brought up by the Curetes, and 1000 things more, of which I cannot make a detail in this place. But above all, that which is more surprising than anything is, to see that these princes, who when ancient times were so famous and renowned, and by the Greeks and Romans even worshiped for gods, nay more, for the Almighty God's of heaven and earth, were of the same race or people, from whom the Gauls afterwards came; and this is so manifest, that I shall make it out both from the names of these supply divinities, and from other testimonies that they had no other language than that of the Celtae, which in Caesar's time was spoken and all, and the same language is preferred at this day in Bretagne.

Moreover, it will be very singular to find, that the Spartans or Lacedemonians, a people of old so renowned in Greece, should as it were in their very infancy be intermixed with the Titans and have the greatest part of their language and customs from them: and without saying anything of the Cretans, and Etolian's and some other people of Greece, also have borrowed a great deal from them, we shall show that the Umbrian's, the ancientest

  ix     (9)

nation in all Italy, where the real descendents of the titans; and hence it is, without doubt, that the Roman historians looked upon them to be the race of the most ancient Gauls, saying, Umbri veterum Gallorum Propago. But farther, we shall make out, that the Sabines, who gave the Romans so much trouble, had their true origin from these Umbrians; all of which being duly considered it's no wonder their language is very like unto that of the Celtae; you shall find the same concerning the Osci, called Opici migrations, who were another people of Italy near Rome; and that their language, which was half Gaulish, was preserved in the great city by the meanness of the Osquan games, or Attellane Fables. I here overlook a multitude of other things; as for example, who the Curetes, the keepers of Jupiter, were, which was never known to the Greeks nor Romans; with several particulars of ancient history, which, being very remarkable, cannot be unpleasant to the lovers of antiquity.

They will have the satisfaction to see, the language of those Titan princes, before spoken of, I mean Saturn and Jupiter, was the same as the Celtic, or Gaulish tongue. And it is not to be wondered

  x      (10)

at, the language of the same Titans, who have for so many ages had dominion over Greece and Italy, should be intermixed with those of the ancient Greeks and Latins: that will appear very plainly, especially by the language of the ancient Eolians, a people of Greece, and that of the old Latins, who had the name of Aborigines; all which I shall prove, and that so clearly, there will be a hard matter to contest it. In a word, how could the Titans has so long had dominion over Greece and Italy, without insensibly communicating their language to the people? They were either the same Titans, which to me seems probable enough, or at least their descendants, that also settled colonies all Germany over, I mean amongst that brave nation, that was so renowned of old, and much spoken of at this day, I mean, those ancient and valiant people called Teutons. If any should think the proofs I have given of these things in the body of the book are not convincing enough, let them peruse the large Alpha-bet and Tables at the latter and, and they shall find, am confident much to their satisfaction, that the Greek, Latin, and high Dutch, to say nothing of the languages of other people, are full of Celtic or Gaulish words.

  xi     (11)

that seems very strange to us in these days, though nothing is truer; will be much more so, when perhaps I may make it appear, that the Grecians, web valued themselves so much, have not only, as well as the Latins, Lord a great part of their language from the Celtae, and other barbarous nations of the north, but that it was also on them and they seem to have had the first knowledge of the celestial sphere, as well as of the constellations; and therefore it was idle in the great Scaliger, and several other learned men of our times, to pretend, that when the ancient astronomers, whether Greeks or Romans, have in their writings mentioned the sphere of the barbarians, that thereby is met by the sphere of the Egyptians, or maybe as some other Eastern nations, such as the Chaldeans and Arabians. It does not seem to me as if there were any thing of truth in all this. By this sphere of the barbarians, must be meant thus of the ancient Celtic and northern people, of whom, the Greeks borrowed it, and by which they formed their own,which at last, after many additions and alterations, they brought to perfection. But this is not a place for these thing's. I shall say but a word or 2 by the way, in order to show that the Greeks borrowed more things,

xii    (12)

than Man aware of from the barbarians, whom they have so much despised, and especially of the Celtae, or Gauls.

If I'm not worthy to be believed upon this account, we need go no farther than the preface of Diogenes Laertius, by which we find, and that upon the authority of Aristotle and Eotian, that the very rudiments of philosophy came from the barbarians, amongst whom the Celtae, or the Gauls, were reckoned. And though Diogenes Laertius shows be of a contrary opinion, it's no hard matter to overthrow all his arguments; and this author makes himself ridiculous to a great degree, in pretending that mankind, and consequently philosophy, had its origins in the Grecians.

But I had forgot that I have so far digressed, and so may be tiresome to my reader. I shall conclude one thing, that man ought not to be ignorant of, and that is, that the language of the Titans, which was that of the ancient Gauls, is, after a revolution of above 4000 years, preferred even to our own time: a strange thing, that so ancient a language should now be spoken by the Armorican Briton's in France, and by the ancient Britains in Wales. These are the people who have the honor to preserve the language of the posterity of Gomer, Japhet’s

  xiii   (13)

eldest son, and the nephew of Shem, the language of those princes called Saturn and Jupiter, who passed for great deities among the ancients.

As to the rest, I have entirely overthrown the notions entertained of the false heathenish divinities, by discovering their true origin; and thereby hope to have done no small service to true religion, which is firmly built up by detection of fables, and overthrowing of error. But if after all that I have said, it may be thought I have undertaken the subject with the design to aggrandize my own nation, by making it appear beyond contradiction, to be one of the ancient us in the world: I dare be bold here to affirm, that such suggestions are utterly false. I honor my country as much as any man, but I am far from being able to add anything to its glory; and if I could, it should be without any design of interest, and it is very well known I am not hired to do it. It is therefore nothing but a love to, and search after truth, that has engaged me in this undertaking. If it has been my fortune to meet with it, by the help of that skill I have in the Celtic language, and reading of ancient authors, I have not been wanting to discover it to the public.

  xiv  (14)

This work, the size what is been ready noted, contains the true origin of Joni and, or Ionian Greeks; as so that of the ancient Eolian's, and Dorians; the beginning of those people called Aborigines, who are thought to be descended from the Ausonians, the ancient inhabitants of Peloponnesus, is here inquired into. Lastly, I have searched into the origin of the Parthians, and Persians which last were the others progeny; and to that of the Phrygians, Dacians, and Germans, and after that a peculiar method, and such as tends to clear up a great many difficulties, especially in respect to the conformity, learned men observe there was, between the Persian and Teutonic languages: all this falls naturally with in the compass of my subject, which if is well handled, let the glory be given to God, the Father of light in truth.

The Contents to follow

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xv           (pg 15)

BOOK I.  (1)

Chap. I.         (1)          Of the Antiquity of the Nation and Language of the Celtae,
                              otherwise called Gauls.                                                                     Page   1

Chap. II.       (2)          Of the several Names of the Ancient Gauls.                                        6

Chap. III.      (3)          Of the true Origin of the Celtae from Gomer.                                     11

Chap. IV.      (4)          Of the Gomarians that were called Sacae.                                         21

Chap. V.       (5)          Of the Sacae falling into Armenia.                                                     32

Chap. VI.      (6)          Of the Sacae that passed into Capadocia.                                         36

Chap. VII.    (7)          That the Cimbri, and the Cimmerii, were the Celtae that dwelt
                              in the Northern Parts.                                                                       40

Chap. VIII.   (8)          That the Sacae went into Phrygia, and afterwards assumed
                              the Name of Titans.                                                                          44

Chap. IX.      (9)          That Uranus, Prince of the Titans, succeeded his Father Acmon.        49

Chap. X.       (10)        That Saturn, the Son of Uranus, was the first King of the Titans.         56

Chap. XI.      (11)        Jupiter makes War against his Father Saturn, and after his Death
                              reigned alone over the Titans.                                                               62

Chap. XII.     (12)        That Jupiter, the Son of Saturn, reigned over the Titans.                        73

Chap. XIII.   (13)        Who the Curetes were, so Famous amongst the Titans.                         85

  xvi  (pg 16)

Chap. XIV.   (14)        That the Titans were true Celtae.                                                           90

Chap. XV.    (15)        A Recapitulation of what has been said concerning the Titan Kings.       100

Chap. XVI.   (16)        Of the People of Greece, the Descendants of the Titans.                       108

Chap. XVII.  (17)        That the Spartans, or Lacedemonians, come from the Celtae.               113

Chap. XVIII.  (18)       Of the Conformity there is between the Spartans and Titans.                 122

Chap. XIX.   (19)        That the Umbrians were by the Ancients taken to be Celtae, or Gauls.    128

Chap. XX.     (20)        That the Sabins were the Descendants of the Umbrians and Spartans.    133

BOOK II.  (2)

Chap. I.         (1)          The Origin of the Celtick, otherwise called the Gaulish Language.             141

Chap. II.       (2)          What the Ancient Language of the Grecians was before the
                                    Time of Deucalion and his Son Hellenus.                                                  158

Chap. III.      (3)          Of the Ancient Language of the Aborigines, since called Latins.                 184

Chap. IV.      (4)          Of the true Origin of the Teutones or Germans.                                         208

Chap. V.       (5)          That the Teutonick Language has borrowed much from the Celtick.          221

Chap. VI.      (6)          That the Persian Language has borrowed much of the Teutonick.              226

Chap. VII.    (7)          Of the following Table.                                                                             234

BOOK III.  (3)

Chap. I.         (1)          A Table of Greek Words, taken from the Celtick or Gaulish Language.         245

Chap. II.       (2)          A Table of Latin Words taken form the Celtick or Gaulish Language.             262

Chap. III.      (3)          A Table of the Teutonick, or German Words, that are taken from the Celtick Language    299

Chap. 1
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Pg 1
CHAP. I. (1)

Of the Antiquity of the Nation and Language of the Celtae, otherwise called Gauls.

Great nations, I mean, such as have been famous, and made a considerable figure in the world, are almost like great rivers, that are never thoroughly
Pg 2
known, unless you ascend to their very spring and original. It is with some measure of justice that the kelp they, a people better known by the name of Gauls, should be reputed great, either upon account of the number of their people, valiant actions, or the antiquity of descent; but they must be allowed to be truly great, when entitled to all three together, after that upon uncontestable terms, which in respect to the Celtic are Gaulish nation, cannot be disputed.

In the first place the nation was very numerous, seeing that in the reign of Augustus Caesar, when it's grandeur was much abated, and as it were confined within narrower bounds, Gaul contained no less than 60 great people, which among them were called cities or societies, that they were brave and valiant, we have proofs of 590 years standing before our saviors nativity, that is, in the reign of Tarquin the elder, when a very numerous army of Gauls, haven't opened the passages of the Alps, under the conduct of Bellovesus, in a short time invaded a great part of Italy, which from them was called Gallia Cisalpina, and having 200 years after this made themselves masters of Rome, they were for some ages the terror of the Romans, whom God had destined one day to be masters of the world.
Pg 3
But though there were something herein that was great, that was nothing in comparison and what they had done long before in the lesser Asia, Greece and all the west. In short, this nation has annext antiquity to the numerousness and valor of its people, since it had its beginning in the provinces of the higher Asia, and some ages after the flood, and that I had then Kings of its own, and even very renowned ones in the time of Abraham, and before Ninus reign in Assyria.

In advancing things of this nature, and which seemed to be so remote from us, we must carry the antiquity of the kelp day very far, and entertained extensive ideas of this warlike nation. I expect they will at first sight be looked upon to be only imaginary and chimerical notions, to say no worse of them. Yet there are inconsistencies and difficulties that may perhaps be removed. We should indeed be very circumspect, when we meet with anything made public that is so surprising and extraordinary nature: we must say, that whoever attempts it without good proofs, and convincing reasons, we ought to be very cautious of them

Having premised thus much, which in my opinion does not seem to be vain or imaginary, I fancy I hear some learned man already object and say,
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What can be writ concerning antiquity of the Celtae, more than is in the Caesar's commentaries, who conquered and subject them to the Roman powers; was there anything that could escape the knowledge and perspicacity of that great man? Had he not said in his writings as much as could be done concerning this great people? And where are those monuments to be met with at this day, account form us of what he was ignorant of? These are the objections, or rather Sallies, I often met with, when I've gone about to show particular persons what I am now discovering to the public.

It must be a thing taken wholly for granted, the Caesar, who had said so much of the Gauls in his excellent commentaries, has said nothing of the antiquity of the nation. He is content, in a very few words to observe, that according to the tradition of the Druids, they were descended from Pluto. (Caesar commment. de Bell. Gall. Lib. 6.) Galli se omnes a dite Patre prognatos praedicant. Does the hearing the conqueror of the Gaulish nation speak after this manner, concerning those people on their origin, afford us more knowledge or a greater light into things done before? Is it not plain that his book, de Bello Gallico, was wrote with no other intent than to show that he had the address to conqueror so potent a
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Nation in the space of nine or 10 years, when so often struck a terror into the Romans, and were thought almost invincible? That is so likely, that this conqueror affected in his commentaries to conceal that from the public, which he took special care to remark in his own peculiar journals. Some glimpses of this truth have reached our times, and we find from thence that he had been so worsted in battle, as to fall into the hands of his enemies, from whom he escaped by a very singular providence. This is not a place for publishing these things, nor make any inquiry into them: what I shall now adventure to offer is, that Caesar knew nothing in a manner of the antiquity of the Celtae, and less still of their origin, and therefore he did wisely say nothing of them.

If Tacitus had done the same as Caesar, in his book of the Germans or Teutones, we must have celebrated his memory with our praises, for the curious things he had taught us thereby whereas there are many who ridiculed him nowadays, and that justly, for having said of these people, that they were born time immemorial, in the country they possessed, without having deduced their birth or origin from anywhere else. Perhaps they sprung up like mushrooms, or were produced like
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Frogs and grasshoppers, to say no more of Tacitus, who is otherwise an excellent author, let us now assume this principle that 'tis not from profane authors, that we are to learn, from whence those ancient nations came, that have peopled the world: two words of Scripture give us more light herein, that all their writings and histories put together: that is the source of truth and antiquity, and there is we are to search, if we would discover it, to which we shall quickly have recourse, after we have said something concerning the different names given to the Gauls, since the origin of these people.

Chap. 2
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Chap. II (2)

Of the several Names of the Ancient Gauls.

Caesar, who could not forbear saying somewhat upon this occasion; seems in the beginning of his commentaries to take it upon him to tell us, that the people who inhabited Gaul had of themselves taken upon them the name of Celtae, and that the Romans gave than that of Gauls, Qui ipsorum lin-
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gua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. It's very likely that great man did not know these two names were deduced from the language of the country, {Celta & Gallus.} and not borrowed from any other. For you must know that the word Celta, as well is that of Gaul, signified the same thing among them, i.e. powerful, valiant or valorous. Caesar therefore had spoke more correctly, if he had said that the Grecians in their writings { Χελτος Galli } made use of the word Celtae, which was the ancienter, and that the Romans took that of Gauls; though at the same time we must not forget to observe, that the Greeks themselves of also given the name of Galatae to the Gauls, and 'tis thus they commonly call them; but this name, which the Greeks have invented, and more particularly belong to the Gauls, that settled in the lesser Asia, or Galatia, is of a much latter-date than that of Celtae, which is everywhere to be met with in ancient authors.

But the Celtae, at least a part of them, were called Cimbrians and Cimmerians, {Cimbri & Cimmerii} before they bore the other two names above mentioned, the word Cimbri  is taken from the Latin Cimber, and this last arrived from Kimber or Kimper, which signifies a warrior in the Celtic tongue. It bears the same signification among the Teutones or Germans; And
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as for Cimmerian, it is what the ancient Grecians, and especially the poets, have softened out of Cimbri or Cimbrian, as some of them have well observed: but here by the way it's necessary to take notice, that the name of Cimbrians was in a manner given to none other of the Celtae, but such as anciently were fixed in the northern parts of the world. I mean, above the Euxine, and to the north of the Danube: it was a colony of these people, and a very ancient one, too, that gave name to the Chersonesus, or according to modern pronunciation, the Cimbrick Kersonesus, now the country of Jutland, beyond Holstein.

A vast number of other Celtae falling into the lesser Asia, who came from Bactrianna, and the neighboring countries and these people having almost at the same time invaded Thrace, Greece, and the Isle of Crete or Candia (Titans), they assumed the name of Titans, which became so famed in antiquity, especially through the fictions of the poets, that they very much dignified their glorious exploits. Several have been, and are still of opinion, that these Titans, so much talked of, ought to be esteemed no other wife, that as an imaginary and fabulous race of man, but this is an error, from which they shall be reclaimed. The real truth is, that they were a potent and warlike people, that came from a higher Asia, and performed great things
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in the first stages of the world, and that shall hereafter be made to appear by so many proofs and authorities, as shall leave no room to doubt it: and here by the way I shall assume the liberty to say, that the word Titan is also taken from the Celtic tongue, and properly signifies, and man of the earth, or born of the earth. This is so manifest, that the word  ΤιτανεςTitanes, among the Greeks, or as the more ancient authors write it, Τιτηνες,
Titenes, is always explained by that of γηγνoις, or Terrigenae, as much as to say, born of the earth, or children of the earth. As for the rest, these Titans have three or four princes successively to had them, who performed such astonishing and prodigious exploits, as are scarce to be credited; and from thence it was that they came be put into the number of the gods, even of the greatest Celestial and terrestrial divinities. I shall quickly make these things manifest, which have hitherto been involved in obscurity, by reason of their remoteness from us, and enter mixture with ridiculous fables.

Here we are to observe, that the Celtae, before they had the name of Titans, were called Saces or Saques, Σαχας,   in Latin Sacae. Some will have it that this opprobrious name which signifies a thief, robber, etc. was given them by the Parthians, who the Celtae today had forcibly driven out of their country and society,
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and that these being enraged to have been thus dispossessed of their territories, had by way of revenge called those Sacae, whom they considered as an unjust and oppressive people, and their greatest enemies. The Parthians, who are the authors of this name, in process of time taught it to the Persians, their descendants, by whose means it came to be known to the Grecians, and afterwards to the Romans; for we may be bold to say, that the Latins knew nothing of ancient nations, for what they learned of the Greeks; and these last got the knowledge of a great many things only of the Persians, as well as the Egyptians, Phoenicians, and some other Eastern people. The name of Sacae, low in that self opprobrious, stuck however to those on whom it was laid, and became famous through all Asia.

But the most ancient name of the Celtae ever bore, while there remained in the higher Asia, was that of Comarian's, { Comari } or rather Gomarian's, { Gomari } by some authors called Gamarites. That was their first in true name, being that which they had from the earliest times of the world, rather from their very first origin; they took it from Gomer, the eldest son of Japhet, he be in the person whom they looked upon to be their father and founder. This name, which now appears to be obscure to us, was not unknown to the ancient geographers, and
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we find it famous in the provinces of the higher Asia, from whence the Celtae of whom we are speaking, had their origin. From thence it was that they spread themselves at different times into the lesser Asia, and so into Greece, Italy, and lastly, to the utmost boundaries of your, West and North; all which we shall hereafter endeavor to make out from history, and the testimony of ancient authors. These in short were the different names the Celtae had, as well in Asia as in Europe since their establishment in the world.

Chap. 3
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Chap. III (3)

Of the True Origin of the Celtae, from Gomer.

We have ascended by these different names, we have now given you, as by so many steps, to the very origin of a people, that have been so well known in all the Western parts of the world by the name of Gauls and Celtae; I have already intimated that there first and true name was that of Gomarians, which they had from the first ages of the world, as being the descendents of Gomer, Japhet’s eldest son.
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in vain it is that some modern authors have gloried, and taken much pleasure to find the Gauls in this Gomer, now spoken of, the Teutones  or Germans in Ashkenez, the Swedes and Danes in Magog, for this is to glory in being deceived, and to take a delight to lead the world and error. Gomer never came into Gaul, nor Ashkenaz into Germany, much less did Magog into Denmark and Sweden. These men, who were the founders of three potent nations, never went out of Asia, and we may say, without running the risk of being deceived, that that part of the world ought to be looked upon as the cradle, out of which those numerous nations came, that in after ages peopled all Europe. I accept that no other than the Greeks and three seasons, for they alone were the nations that had two of the sons of Japhet for their fathers. It's therefore certain that all the nations of Europe, saving these two, older origin in establishment to the first inhabitants of Asia, and especially in that part of it that is beyond Mount Taurus, towards the North. It's in these Asiatic provinces that we're to find the first descendants of Gomer, and not in Gaul, towards the extremities of the West, which was not peopled till a long time after. But 'tis necessary we should call to mind before we go any farther, that those
pg 13
people, whom we call Gauls, are by the Greeks usually called ( Γαλατοαι ) Galatae, or Galatians, and that the Galatians, to whom St. Paul wrote an epistle, were no other than a colony of goals that went over from Europe, and fix themselves in the territories of the upper Phrygia, about 270 years before Christ. This being taken for granted, and confirmed by the authority of historians, it's no difficult matter to find out, from whence those Gauls originally came, whom the Greeks call Galatians, and are the same as the Celtae.

Josephus in his first book of the antiquities of the Jews, makes a kind of comment upon the 10th chapter of Genesis, where Moses sets down the fathers and heads of each nation. And when he comes to speak of Gomer, who was the eldest son of Japhet, he says directly, and without any hesitation, that he was the founder, εχτισε, Condidit, of those people anciently called Gomarians, to whom the Greeks now give the name of Gauls.

Τους γδ νυν ελληνων  Γαλατας  χαλομενος  Γομαρεις  δε λεγομενος, Γομαρος εχτισε.  (Josephus Antiq. Jud. l. i. c. 6.)

Gomerus, he speaks of Japhet’s son, Populos condidit dictas Gomaritas, que nunc a Grecis Galli sen Galata appellantur. It's very plain from the words of this learned Jewish historian that Gomer
pg 14
was the father and founder of the Gomarians or Gomarites, and that these ancient people were no other than what the Greeks afterwards called Galatians, which was the same as Gauls, so there's no need of contesting this matter any farther. Now its proper to inquire where those people were, named Gomarians, of whom Josephus speaks; are they to be found in any part of Europe? No: where then could they be but in Asia?

(Ptol. Geog. I. 6. c. II, and 13.) Let us but cast our eyes a little upon the books and maps of Ptolemy, the famous geographer and survey but for a moment the provinces of the Higher Asia, I mean those between Media, Bactriana and the Caspian Sea, there we shall easily find the Chomarians or, Comarians, or no other than the go Marion's of Josephus, whom some of the ancients have likewise called Gamarites, which amounts all to the same thing: The Gomarians therefore, according to Josephus, or the Galatians or galls; but how could he know a thing which at this day appears to us so obscure and dark? It's not at all strange for him to say, the Gomer was the founder of the go Marion's, the likeness of names makes that easily out. But who could inform him that the Gauls came from the Gomarians? But either the truths of ancient history or the tradition of his fathers
pg 15
the Hebrews? It's no matter whether it were the one or the other. We shall see by and by this learned person was not wrong in his calculation.

But that people may not suppose Josephus to be the only person, but assures us Gomer was the father of the Gauls, Eustathius of Antioch, or the commentary upon the Hexameron was also love this opinion; and here take what he says of Gomer, which after the Septuagint he calls Gamer. Gamer, says he, was the founder of the Gamarians, whom now we call Galatians or Gauls. Γαμερ οςις Γαμαρεις τος νυν Γαλατασ συνεστησεν.

 Gomer Populos Gamarenses Constituit, quos nune Gallos Gallos vocamus :This is an opinion which St. Jerome is also embrace without any hesitation; for he says in his Questions of Hebrew Traditions upon Genesis, that the Galatians, which were the Gauls, were descended from Gomer:  Sunt autem Gomer, Galatae.   But to show that the Galatians both he and others mean the Gauls, we need to offer no more than what St. Isidore, Bishop of Seville, says thereupon, in his book concerning the origin of them; his words are these, Filii atutem Japhet Septem numerantur, Gomer, ex quo Galatae, id est Galli, i. e. (Isidor Orig. l. 9.)

We find that Japhet had seven sons, of which Gomer the eldest was the father of the Galatians, that is to say, the Gauls.
pg 16
This explication of St. Isidore, or rather Dilucidation, brought in on purpose to remove the ambiguity of the word Galatians, is enough to solve all difficulties upon this head. By it therefore is meant the Gauls or Celtae, as appears by the Chronicle of Alexandria, or otherwise the Paschal Chronicle, which says, Gomer, from whom the Celtae had their origin. Γαμερ εξ ο χαλατοι  Gamer a quo Celtae orti sunt.

This opinion, or rather truth, which was received in ancient times, we find likewise confirmed by an ancient Jew, named Joseph, the son of Gorion, and that the reason they called Goronidus, (Josef Goriond. in Mist. apud Bochari) who has said somewhat concerning the origin of nations many ages ago. Filii Gomer sunt Franci , qui habitant in terra Franciae ad Flumen Seina.

The sons of Gomer are the Franks, that dwell towards the Seine in France. These are the words of that Jew, and 'tis very manifest that by the sons of Gomer he means the Gauls, whom he calls Franks, or French dwelling near the Seine, in order to distinguish them from the Franks in Germany. (Bochari Phaleg. l. 3. c. 8.)  In short, my design and produce and all these evidences of truth, has no other tendency than to show that Josephus, the Jewish historian, had reason on his side in making the Gauls to be the descendants of Gomer, and that on the contrary a Learned
pg 17
Author is in the wrong, when he reproves him for it, and pretends upon weak grounds to make Gomer the father of the Phrygians; a thing that can no ways be maintained, as I shall show in another place.

Now from all these testimonies and others that at present do not occur to me, there are two things that appear to me to be incontestable; the first, that Gomer was the chief of the Gomarians, Comarians, or Gamarians, for anciently they bore various names; and the other is, that these Gomarian's afterwards were called Galatians or Gauls.

But to the end nobody shall say, that these Gomarian's were people unknown to ancient authors, we need no more than the consult the most famous geographer's hereupon, such as Dionysius of Alexandria, (Dionys. Per. v.700.)  or rather Charax, { Pomponius Mela l. i. c. 2.}, {Pliny, l. 6. c.16. } and add to these the famous Ptolomy {Geog. l. 6. c. ii. etc. 13.}. The same author in the sixth book of his geography, calls them Chomarians or Comarians, for he divides them into two people, as well as Mela, but in the main they were both of the same origin: but Ptolemy places the Chomarians in Bactriana, pretty near the Oxus, I suppose to the south of that river, that is so famous in upper Asia: he also fixes the city of Chomara there, which seems to have been the capital of these people. As for the
pg 18
Comarians, he fixes them towards the most eastern boundaries of Sogdiana, not far from the sources of the Jaxartes and in the country of the Sacae, whereas Mela quite to the contrary places the Comarians towards Sogdiana and Bactriana. And as for the Chamarians he puts them a little above the Caspian sea, towards the Massagetae: so that 'tis clear enough from hence that both these people came from the same stock; that first they were founded by Gomer towards the countries of Margiana and Bactriana, and that in process of time they separated from one another; that the one continued in Bactriana, their ancient habitation, and that the other moved towards those countries that laid more to the East, beyond the Jaxartes, between the spring of that River and Mount Imaus.

Now for so happens that there should not still be an acquiescence with all these authorities, I hope that of the Scripture will not at all be controverted upon the account. It's plain according to the history of Josephus that the Gomarians were the descendants of Gomer, and farther, that these Gomarians, according to the ancient geographers, dwelt in the northern provinces of higher Asia, so that upon the whole, it is not very manifest that it is of these people that Ezekiel speaks in
pg 19
The 38th chapter of his prophecies. The Lord was pleased to discover to this man and extraordinary vision, the terrible irruption which should be made one day into the land of promise, or country of the Israelites, by a people from the north of Asia, and from beyond Mt. Taurus, and amongst these northern people he reckons Gomer and his bands, {Latin: Gomer & Universa Agmina sua}. By the word Gomer, according to the Scripture language, is meant here the Gomarians, and by these other words, {Latin: Universa Agmina Sua}, we are to understand those other people that went out from amongst them and who will be and then with them, felt together into Palestine: and this is what upon the matter came to pass towards the beginning of the Persian Empire, some years after the Jews were returned from the captivity of Babylon. And therefore we may see by this passage in the prophet, that there were still Gomarians in the upper Asia, that is, descendants of Gomer, in the time of Ezekiel, or above 550 years before the Nativity of Christ; and there were also other people, who deduced their origin from them, which perhaps might be the Sacae and Cimmerians, of whom we shall speak hereafter.

But as we live in an age, were in much more regard is had to reason,
pg 20
than Authority, we shall advance somewhat more upon this head, that show that we do not want a farther confirmation of the matter: when Moses speaks of the children of Japhet, the son of righteous Noah, he mentioned seven of them, beginning with Gomer, as being the first and eldest; then he comes to Magog, and next to Madai, the third son. Now it is certain that Magog had Scythia, properly so-called, for his share, that is, Great Tartary, to the North of the Jaxartes: likewise Madai it was fixed in Media, above Persia, for 'tis generally agreed he was the father of the Medes.

Now is there not reason to believe that Gomer, the eldest brother, had for his share those provinces that lay between the repartition of the other two, I mean, between Media and Tartary, and those are Hircania, Margiana, Bactriana, with the country of the Sogdians. Strabo, who launches out in the praise of them in the second book of his geography, assures us that they are the most agreeable and fruitful parts of all Asia, besides their vicinity to a vast sea, and they're been watered with large rivers. (Strabo Geog. lib. 2.) Those rich countries were justly allotted to be the share of Gomer, Japhet's eldest son, and the first habitations of the Gomarians, his descendants, who time immemorial dwelt there, either by this name, or that of Sacae. We shall

pg 21

see hereafter, and that is a thing very remarkable, that the name of Japhet, called Japet, by profane authors, is not retained in any part of the world, norm on any other people than the Titans, the descendants of Gomer. If all these reasons authorities do not relish with some learned man, for I know there are some persons who will always start difficulties, I know not what 'tis that can give them contentment.

Chap. 4
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Chapter IV  (4) Begins     pg 21 cont.

Of the Gomarians that were called Sacae.

It's necessary we should hear observed before we proceed any farther, that ancient inhabitants of the higher Asia, situate above Media, Mount Taurus and Caucasus, were all of them from the beginning called Scythians: this name was known to the most ancient Greeks, though we are not from thence to conclude that it had its rise among them. There is reason to believe that it had its origin from those northern people, and that the Scythians gave themselves this name, because they were very expert at shooting arrows, darting their javelins,
pg 22
or the like. For some northern nations to this day use the words Scheten or Schuten in that sense, and the word Schutz, from which came that of Scythes, signifies an archer among them.

The true Scythians, who are the inhabitants of great Tartary, are the descendents of Magog, the second son of Japhet, and consequently Gomer's younger brother, and so the Celtae, or descended from the same Gomer, in point of antiquity are a degree beyond the Scythians, who are the progeny only of his younger brother: notwithstanding the Scythians were formally reputed the ancientest nation in the world, which made Justin after Trogus Pompeius say, Scytharum Gens antiquissima Semper Habita, and he assures us, {Justin.Hist.l.2. c. I.} they carried the bell before the Egyptians, who dispute this prerogative of antiquity with them. Superitis AEgyptus, antiquiores Semper vist Scythe. In the main there is nothing sure than this, for the Scythians came from Magog, the second son of Japhet, whereas the Egyptians were the descendents of Mesraim, the second son of Ham, and consequently the former must have preeminence, for lastly, Japhet was Hammons eldest brother, since he was the first begotten of Noah. This is a decisive argument, but such as
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we could not have met with anywhere, save in the Scriptures.

As the Gomarians, who were no other than the descendents of Gomer, as aforesaid, possessed themselves of the provinces situate to the North of Media, and mount Taurus, they have even from the earliest ages of the world and also comprehended with other northern nations under the name of Scythians. This is so certain, that when they passed into Europe, in order to settle in these Western parts of the world, as well as they had done to the North, and had assumed the name of Celtae, the ancient Greeks failed not to call them Celto-Scythae, and this we have from the authority of Strabo, who says { Strab. Geogr. Lib. II. Σχυθαι & χελτοσχυθαι } the most ancient Greek authors gave the name of Scythians and Celto-Scythians to all the people that dwelt in the northern countries.

  Veteres Gracorum Scriptures universas Gentes, ad Septentrionem vergentes, Scytharum, & Celto-Scytharum nomine adjecerunt.

The same author, who is noted for being very exact, presently as concerning those people that live beyond the Caspian sea, that they were called either Sacae or Massagetae. His words are these, Trans vero mare Caspium, altos Sacas, alios Massagetas appellabant, 

Τους μεν Σαχας Μαοςα γετας χαλον. This, according to Strabo (ibidem.)
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most ancient Greeks have set of them, and that too with a great deal of truth. It is with reason that they have wrote, that the Celtae of Europe were called Scythians, and that those people who dwell towards the Caspian sea, for the name of Sacae, but after all, these ancient Greek authors did not know, that the European Celtae came from the same Sacae of the higher Asia. This is what I shall make out hereafter, but by the way, it is worthwhile to know from whence the word Sacae took its original.

{The first Origin of the Parthians.} The Gomarians, as we have said already, having from the very earliest times possessed themselves of the provinces that lie to the east of the Caspian sea, and that reach from Media to the river Jaxartes, several of them stopped and Margiana, which is a rich and fruitful country, and its air temperate and delightful: this people in process of time increasing to a vast multitude, could not always live in repose and tranquility, the seeds of dissensions and jealousies began to spring up amongst themselves. Amidst these factious and domestic commotions, those who prove the weakest either a number or strength, were expelled by the other, and forced to seek for retreat and the neighboring countries, so that passing over those vast mountains, which are to the self of Margiana, they entered
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Into a country then in the possession of the Medes, who were known by the name of Urtu. Those fugitives fixed themselves either by force or consent in this country they had made their way to, which was surrounded with high mountains: and as they were a people that had been driven out of their native country, they were called Parthians; the same signifying as much as persons separated from others, exiles or banished people; and it was from this name, which is very ancient, and sticks to them to this day, that that province was called Parthia, were these fugitives fixed their habitations. This is the true origin of the Parthians, which is ancienter than that of the Persians, who came from them. Trogus Pompeius had given an example account of them in his 41st book,(Trag. apud Jus. l. 41. c. i. Arrian in Parthicis apud Photium Stephan. V. Parthyaei Jornand. de Reb. getic. c.6.& alii) of which we have but a small abridgment: we find what he says confirmed by Arrian in his Parthicis, by Stephen of Byzantium, and some others.

As to the name of Parthians, implying exiles, &c. as before, which was given by the Gomarians to those they drove away from among them, there is no reason to call the same into question, seeing Parthu to this very day in the Celtic language signifies to divide or separate, and that was the language of the Gomarians. But as to
Pg 26
the time of the separation of the Parthians from the Gomarians, who dwelt in Margiana, that is so very ancient as to proceed that of Ninus, and the foundation of the famous Empire of Allyria, and so we may well place it even before the time of Abraham himself. It's from these Parthians that the Persians in process of time came, and the ancient people of Caramania, as might be showed by many arguments: wherefore there is no reason we should wonder to find even at this day such a great number of Celtic or Gaulic words in the Persian language. These words were conveyed into that language by the meanness of the Persians, who came originally from the Gomarians, that gave being to the Celtae. We find also in the Persian Tom a great many Teutonic or German words, at which the learned of these latter times have not been a little surprised, without being able to give any reason for, and that is, because they did not know that the same nation, of whom in part the Teutones came, had formally planted the Parthians and the Persian colonies. But this is not a proper place to make a discovery of things, which have been hidden to the present time. It may perhaps be done in some other part of this work. Let us now resume the threat of our discourse.
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These exiles, who, as I have said, and afterwords the name the Parthians given them, finding they were expelled [from] their country, by wicked faction, and that they could not take revenge upon them any otherwise than by a abusive language, they gave the name of Sacae to those whom they considered no otherwise than their enemies, and this by way of spite only, seeing the fame in appearance signifies a thief, robber, and the like. Perhaps they at first used the word Scacae, which by degrees they softened into Scacae. Be it as it will, this nickname, which was invented by the Parthians, stuck to the Gomarians, who had violently drove them out of their possessions.

We find still the remains of this ancient word in that of Sakae or Sacager, which is the same thing as to commit murder. There is reason to believe, that from hence came the name, we give to the game of chess, which in barbarous Latin is called Scacorum Ludus, and by the ancients’ Latr anculorum Ludus, that is, the game of the Scacae or Sacae, or the thefts games, the Italians call it Scacchi, which they took from the Schack of the Goths, who bore sway amongst them a long time. This famous game came therefore, originally from those people that dwell in the North of Asia, and so is always been much
Pg 28
In vogue among the northern nations from whom it passed into Parthia and Persia, and in process of time came into Europe.

And here by the way it will be proper to observe, that those, what first had opprobrious name of Sakae given them, were Gomarian Scythians, who dwelt, as aforesaid, in Margiana; and hence it is that Herodotus, a very ancient historian, says, that they were the Amyrgian Scythians, who were first so-called, by whom he means the Margian Scythians, the neighbors of the Bactrians. The Persians afterwards, according to the same author, gave this name in common to all the other Scythians: Persae cunctos Schthos vocant sacas.  Thus agrees exactly with what Pliny has in his sixth book; for this author speaking of the Scythians in general, says, that the Persians, or rather Parthians, who are often confounded, gave to all of them the name of Sakae, but that the same began with those who were there neighbors. His words are these, Ultra sunt Scytharum Populus  Persae illos Sacas in universum appellaverae, a proxima Gented, and what Scythian nation was a higher neighbor to the Parthians, then the Margians, who were divided from them by the mountains only. They are the people who Herodotus calls Amyrgians.
Pg 29
Here I pray take notice that these Margians or Amyrgians were breaches according to Herodotus, and it was from them that the Celtae, who afterwards came into the West brought them into Gaul, in so much, that some part of their people there, were called Galli Braccati; to which we may add the arms of these Amyrgians, set forth by the same historian, which were like unto those borne by the ancient Gauls: wherefore we may upon the whole find the Gomarians of Margiana, the language, arms, habit, with the release and warlike nature of our ancient Celtae. Will anybody then take upon him to deny that they came originally from this Asiatic nation?

Tho’ the Persians generally gave the Name of Sacae to all the Nations beyond the Medes and Parthians, yet this Name in a more particular manner stuck to the Descendants of Gomer, who lived in Upper Asia, and so when Ptolomy (in Geog. l. 6. c. 13) speaks of them in his Geography, he shows us plainly that there were those among the Sacae who always went by the Name of Gomarians. The Saca, says he, who live near the Jaxartes, are the Carates and Comarians. The Comarian Sacae, of whom that Famous Geographer treats, were properly speaking, those People, who were called the Nomadan Sacae, who indeed dwelt near the Jaxartes,

pg 30
in the vast Plains which lie between that River and Mount Imaus: These People always lead a Vagrant and Savage Life, and that was the Reason why they were called Nomadan Sacae, because they ranged up and down the Fields, in feeding their Flocks: It’s very likely the Cimbrians,  Cimmerians, or Celtick People, came from them, of whom we shall speak hereafter.

But besides these Sacique Comarians, who were a wild and savage People, and lived more to the North, there were others that dwelt in Bactriana, and upon the Confines of Margiana. Ptolomy, (in his Geog.l.6. c. II.) to distinguish them from others, calls them Chomarians, and makes Chomar to be their Capital City: These were somewhat more civilized than the Nomades, because they lived in Towns and Villages, and so we may suppose that it was from them the Titans came. In short, these Sacae of whom we speak, have always been a very famous People, and when Pliny (his Hist. l. 6. c. 17.) touches in general upon the Scythian Nations, that lived in the Upper Asia, he is not wanting to place the Sacae at the Head of them, as being the most renowned of them all, Celeberimi eorum Sacae.

Cyrus, King of Persia, having subdued many Nations, and even King Croesus, and the Lydians, meditated a War against the Sacae and Bactrians, as the most im-

pg 31
portant and difficult of any other. In short, having commenced the same, he was quickly defeated and routed by these warlike people, and he was not able to accomplish his ends, any otherwise than by a stratagem, described by Strabo (in Geog. l. II.), and such a one as did not much suit with the greatness of his courage and victories. However the Sakae from thence forward became good friends with the Persians, submitted to their empire, did them great services and all their wars, and more especially in that waged by Xerxes in Greece, for when that great prints had withdrawn out of Attica, when Mardonius his general, The Sakae with him, who were horsemen, in order to give battle to the Lacedemonians, who had confederated with the Athenians against them. Herodotus (in Circa Medium), who describes this enterprise very exactly, says truly enough that Mardonius lost the day, and his life together, near Platea, but he also assures us, that of all the barbarians, the Persian foot fought the best, and the Sacique Calvary.  Stenuissimi ex equtibus Sacae.

Chap. 5
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Chap. V (5)          pg 32   begins this chapter

Of the Sacae falling into Armenia.

These Sakae, of whom we have related such on and singular things, coming to multiply very much in the provinces of Margiana, Hyrcania and Bactriana, took care to find out some other places in Asia, where they might plant colonies: ancient authors assure us, that among other countries they fell into Armenia, being allured to it through the beauty and fertility of that province. Strabo is the author that is transmitted unto us an account of this irruption of the Sakae, which yet is mentioned by some others. The Sakae, says he, much like unto the Cimmerians, have often made inroads, sometimes into the neighboring provinces, and other times into those that were remoter from them, for they seized upon Bactriana, and made themselves also Masters of the best part of Armenia, which from them had the name of Sacacena, Σαχαι της Αρμενιας χατεχτησαντο γην, αριςην γην, ην χαι επωνυμον εαυτων χατελιπον την Σαχασηνην. Sacae optimam Armeniae Regionem occuparunt, quam nomine suo vocarunt Sacaenam.  he adds soon after,
pg 33
that they pass from Armenia into Cappadocia, and more especially in that part of it which borders upon the Euxine sea. That which Strabo calls Sacacena, Isidore of Charax, in his Parthion Stathmas names Sacastena, which he says was taken from the Sakae, a Scythian nation, that had seized the fame. In short, Sacastena, properly signifies the country of the Sakae: For Stan and Tan in the Celtic tongue implies a region. This word we find in data Britannia, for so it should be written, as should Aquitania, Lusitania, and many more after the same manner. These three names, by the way, signified the country of the Britts or the Bretons, the country of waters, and the country of the Lucians. The Persians and Parthians, who make use of the Stan instead of Tan, as you may see in the words Chufistan, Indostan, and the like, have had it as well as many others, from the Asiatic Sacae. Which still is a pregnant proof that the language of the Sacae or Gomarians was the Celtic tongue.

  Here we are to observe that the prophets of old Armenia was even of old people with Syrians or Arameans, so that we have a reason to be astonished, that the Armenians anciently had letters, language, and even manners and customs that were like unto those of the Syrians; Armeniorum, says Strabo, Sy-

Pg 34
rorum & Arabum Gentes,
    Το των Λρμενιων εθνος, χαι τοτων Συρων χαι των Αραβων, multum habet Cognationis, lingua, vita

& corporum forma. {Strabo, l. i. Poliaen. Stratag l. 4.}

He puts the Arabs amongst them, because those people did in the very infancy of time make themselves Masters of part of Mesopotamia, a neighboring country of Armenia, and so they must have a near relation, and much correspondence with one another: but is also necessary here to observe, that the Phrygians in like manner sent numerous colonies into Armenia, if we believe Herodotus, Armeni Phrygum cultu ornati erant, utiq; illorum Coloni.  { Herodot. l. 7.} Their are arms were not only like unto those of the Phrygians, but their language had much affinity with the other. Armeni, says Stephen of Byzantium, genus ducunt ex Phrygia, & Linguam Phrygum in multis imitantur :  Και τη φωνη πολλα φρυγιζ οσι { Steph.  V. Arm. p. 112.}

I have not made all these remarks hereto no purpose, they will hereafter be of use to clear up several things, as well in respect to the languages, as to the manners of several nations, which have hitherto lain in obscurity. However, by what I have already said, you may at least see that the Sacae had a powerful settlement in the finest part of Armenia.

Now seen the Armenians were in a manner looked upon to be the same as the Syrians by reason of the conformity,

Pg 35
there was in their manners and language: we have no need to wonder that the Sacae who settled very early amongst them, have been called Aramaeans, which is the same as Syrians, by ancient authors. Thus says Pliny, Persae illos Sacas in universum appellavere, a proxima gented, antique Aramaeos.  { Plin. Hist. l.6. c.17.}  But the Sacae would not remain quiet in Armenia; they made inroads to Syria, and perhaps as far as Arabia, as we shall see in another place. Besides, the Sacae were also neighbors to the Chaldeans, who dwelt not only in Sophena, Mesopotamia, and upper Assyria, but also in the mountains of Armenia, as I have made appear elsewhere in my discourse of the Hebrews in Chaldeans, whose true origin I have sought into.

Having gone thus far, we have no cause to wonder that the Celtic tongue, even to this day, is full of Syriac, Chaldee, and Arabic words, and I'll say this by the way, that the name Ararat, which is used in Scripture, to signify Armenia, and has puzzled M. Bochart and other learned men, and even that of Bar or Barus, proceed from the language of the Sacae, which is the Celtic, and I shall in another place show the import of them, as well is that of Gord or Gordians, which is given to the mountains of Armenia, by all which proofs it will be easy to judge of the
pg 36
antiquity of the nations and language of the Celtae, which subsists to this day in Bretagne and in France and in Wales.

Chap. 6
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Chap. VI (6)          page 36 continues

Of the Sacae that passed into Cappodocia.

Though the Gomarians, who under the name of the Sacae had filled Margiana, Hyrcania, and Bactriana, made a considerable Irruption into the greater Armenia, and settled there a potent colony. From whence that country had the name of Sacastena, yet this nation, besides that it was naturally inclined to war, was moreover, as it has always been, of a roving, uneasy and ambitious nature. And therefore the people resolved to make their way yet farther, and to enter into the provinces of the Western Asia, called Asia the Lesser in order to which, having passed the Mountains bordering on Armenia, they entered by main force into Cappadocia. Strabo, an exact author, and a native of that country, speaking of the Sacae says, they passed into Cappadocia, and chiefly, into that part of it, which adjoins to the Euxine, which they call
pg 37
{side margin: Strabo 1  II}  Pontus, or the Pontick Province αχας μεχρι Καππαδπχων, χαι μαλιςα των προς Ευξεινω, ος Ποντιχος νυν χαλοσι προηλθον.  Sacae usq, ad Cappadoces gressi sunt, eos maxime qui sunt ad mare Euxinum, & Pontici nunc appellantur.

We have shown how that the Sacae or the Descendants of Gomer fixed themselves in the Territories of the Greats Armenia ; as also how they passed into Cappadocia, especially into the Northern Parts of that Country, bordering upon the Euxine Sea. There it was that they settled a new, but a powerful Colony, in those Provinces that are watered by the Thermodon and the Irus. This is a Matter indisputable, and therefore it will be in vain for anybody to go about to contest it: But is it not possible in a thing so remote, obscure, and involved in so much Antiquity, to find out who it was that lead this Colony hither.  Indeed we have met with a small Ray of Light, which the very length of these obscure Ages has not been able to eclipse, and seems to point out to us, who was the Author of this new Transmigration and Settlement.

The Person, who in all Appearance was at the Head of this Enterprise, was a Prince, named Acmon, of whom we meet with but a very obscure Account in Antiquity:  However, the great Actions of his Son, but more especially {side margin: Acmon, conductor of the Sacae into Cappadocia}
pg 38
of his Grandsons have made him famous, as well as he is also rendered so by some ancient Monuments: If we have Regard to Stephen of Bizantium, we find this Acmon to be the Son of Man, or Maneus. Acmon, Manei Filius. δ Αχμων το Μανεως. {Margin: Polyhist apud Step. V. Acmonia.}

Indeed it is likely that Ac-mon or Ach-man, as perhaps the Word might be pronounced by the Sacae, properly signified the Son of Man, or of the Race of Man. Be it as it will, this Prince had a Brother, whose Name was Doeas, who accompanied him in this and all his other Enterprises.

I am apt to believe, if I may have the Freedom to make a Conjecture, that this Doeas was as it were the Augur or Soothsayer to his Brother Acmon, who consulted him in all his most Important Designs. For you must know that the Sacae as well as the Celtae, their Descendants, took great Care to attempt nothing of any great Moment, till they had first seen and consulted their Augurs and Diviners, who had great Authority among them. In short, the Word Doeas may naturally enough come from Doue, or Doe, which even at this Day signifies God in the Celtick Tongue, which the Bretons have for so many Ages preserved: And so this Word might perhaps signify Divinus, a Diviner, Augur, or a Man that had correspondence with the Gods, for People in those times enter-

pg 39
tained a wrong Opinion of them;  that the Gods had much Respect for them, that they made them the Depositories of their Secrets, and the Interpreters of their Will, As for what I have said of Doeas, his being the Brother of Acmon, I have the Testimony of Phericydes, for it, as cited by the Scholiast (scholar) of Apollonius,

{margin: Phericid. apud Scholiast. Apollon, l.2. Steph. ex Pherrecyd. V. Acmonia.}

which we find confirmed by Stephen of Bizantium, who had read the best Authors of ancient Times. The Name of these Two Men, which were almost unknown to the Grecians were yet famous in Pontick Cappadocia, seeing they had a very ancient City there, called Acmonia, according to the Name of Acmon, with a Grove consecrated to him, as to a God or Hero. Besides, we learn from the Argonauts of Apollonius, and some other Authors, { Apol. l.2. Argonaut v. 373, and 990.}

that it was near the river Thermodon, and not far from Themicyra, there were vast Plains, that went by the Name of Doeas. As for Themiscyra, it was a City that had taken us Name from Themus, who was the Daughter, or rather Grand-Daughter of Acmon for Thamus-ker, or Themis-ker, still signifies the City of Themus, in the Celtick Language. And the Word Kir or Ker, a City, the Celtae, with many more, took from the Hebrews. It's this Themus, by the Way, that the ignorant and superstitious Greeks have made to be the Godess of Justice, whereas she was no other

pg 40
than a famous She-Magician, or heathen Prophetess, who spoke the truth without Flattery, and whom they had set up to administer Justice, for this was common enough among the Scythians.  I think now, after the producing of so many Evidences, there is no room to doubt, but that the Sacae settled in Cappadocia as Strabo assures us, and there is no need to say, Acmon was no more than a Sham, and an imaginary Man only, but we shall not have done so with this Hero, we shall meet with other Occasion to speak of him.

Chap. 7
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Chap. VII  (7)            (page 40 continues)

That the Cimbri and the Cimmerii were the Celtae that dwelt in the Northern Parts.

While this Prince undisturbedly enjoyed his fine Conquests in Cappadocia, we shall say a Word or Two concerning the Cimbrians, who were better known unto the Greeks by the Name of Cimmerians; you must therefore know that the Cimbrians were the true Defendants of Gomer, and con-

pg 41
sequently of the Gomarians: I have clearly enough proved that these last were called Sacae, while they continued in the Upper Asia and I have shown there were Two Sorts of them, viz. the more civilized Sacae, who coalesced into Societies in Bactriana and the adjacent Countries, and the vagrant and wild Sacae, who were known by the Name of Nomades.

But these Sacae, called Nomades, who dwelt about the Rise or Spring of the Jaxarties, and not far from Mount Imaus, whether it were that they were willing to follow the Example of the other Sacae, who had fallen into Armenia and Cappadocia, made great Incursions towards the North Part of Asia, and ever of Europe; and as they were in quest of some proper Place where to fix themselves, they took a Resolution, after so many Rovings and Inroads, to settle above the Euxine Sea, towards the Palus Maeotidis. There it was, in all Probability, that they changed their Name, and assumed that of Cimbrians or Cimmerians, in   {margin: Cimbri qui & Cimmerii.}   Latin Cimbri, which properly signifies Warriors, or rather Men of War, as I have elsewhere observed : But the Greeks, especially the Poets, whose Business it was to soften these Barbarous Names, gave them that of Cimmerians. Being thus settled about the Palus Maeotidis and having fixed their Habitations,
pg 42
they communicated their Name to that famous Straight, which has since then been called the Cimbrian or Cimmerian Bosphorus.

If any should scruple what I here offer, let them look upon the ancient Authors, such as Possidonius, { margin: Possidon apud Strabon. l. 7. Diodor. in Bibliot. Mario. Steph. V.  Αβροι}

Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Plutarch, and the like, for their better Satisfaction. Strabo, who makes  Possidonius speak in the case, he having writ before him, believes with good Reason, that this Author made no ill Conjecture, when he said, that the Cimbrians were great Rovers, and that they loved Plunder, that they carried their Arms as far as the Palus Maeotidis, and that the Cimmerian, that is, Cimbrian  Bosphorus was called according to their Name.  { margin: Possidon. apud Atrabo, l. 7.}  Possidonius adds, That the Greeks gave the Cimbrians the Name of Cimmerians Cimbros Graeci Cimmerios appellavere. We may be confident, and that upon very good Grounds, that this Colony of the Cimbrians, or rather Nomadan Sacae, was very ancient, since it preceded the Time of Inachus, who reigned in Greece about 2000 Years before the Nativity of our Saviour. Further, I have met with some ancient Fragments, which may be produced elsewhere, wherein the Cimmerians acknowledge themselves, they were originally Shepherds, descended of those Scythians, called Sacae, that they for-
pg 43
merly dwelt in Asia, and that from thence the Nomades,  { margin: Opilliones Sacae, nomadum Cologni.}  who were such Lovers of Justice, had sent them out to plant this Colony. These Cimbrians, the Offpring of the Asiatick Sacae were without Dispute the true Celtae, as those Historians who have wrote of them, sufficiently intimate. And tho’ they do not say it outright, it’s easy to discern it, as well by their own Name, as by several other Words, that are still extant, of their ancient Language. The Danes may boast, that they are the Progeny of these Cimbri, at least in Part, for their other Origin is Teutonick or German ; and hence it is that we meet to this Day with a great many Celtick or Gaulish Words in the Danish Language. It’s very probable that an ancient Colony of these Cimbri from the Talus Maeotitis, came and gave Name to the Cimbrick Kersonesus now called Jutland and subject to the Danes. But now let us leave the Cimbrians or Nomadan Sacae of whom enough has been said, and return to the other Sacae which settled in the Territories of Pontick Cappadocia.

end chapter & page

Chap. 8
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Chap. VIII.  (8)        pg 44 begins

That the Sacae went into Phrygia, and afterwards assumed the Name of Titans.

Pg 44
Before I undertook to discourse of the Cimmerians, I call to mind, that left Acmon and his brother Doeas in Cappadocia with Sakae, whom he is settled near the Thermodon. But the warlike humor of that prince, excited if I may be bold to say it, by his ambition, would not let him rest quiet there to say nothing of the riches and fruitfulness of the neighboring province which were powerful motives to a people that love to make new incursions and frequently to change their habitation. Acmon therefore and his brother having passed the River Halus, made his way into the greater Phrygia. The ancient monuments of this province afford us a more certain testimony of the truth, than all histories could do.

He built the city there, which for a long time preserved his name, and is transmitted it to posterity. { margin: Stephan. V. Acmonia. } Let us hear with Stephen of Byzantium says in a few words upon this occasion. Acmonia as the city of Phrygia, which is
pg 45
men-tioned by Alexander Polyhister, in the third book of the treaties concerning this province. It Acmon, the son of Manius, was held to be the founder of it. Condidisse ferunt Acmonem. { margin: Cic. Orat. pro Placco.} The city is famed and antiquity. Cicero somewhere speaking of it, calls it Acmona:  { Ptolem. georgr. l.5.c.2 Numis. Imper.}  and what is still more, we find it noted in the Ptolemy’s Geography, and the metals of some Roman emperors. Acmon then having entered into Phrygia, and made himself master of it, they were not wanting here no more that in Cappadocia, to consecrate woods and groves to him. And they're still plains in that country, called Doeantes, according to his brother Doeas his name, { margin: Steph. V. Doeantes.) who accompanied him in this expedition.
Sacae usq; ad Cappadoces progressi sunt :

Here it must be remembered, that I have conducted the Gomarians, under the name of Sakae, from the neighboring countries of Bactriana, as far as Armenia, and from hence we have seen them pass into those parts of Cappadocia, bordering on the Euxine sea: Strabo, who is always very regard full of what he relates, says also that they came so far. Σαχαι μεχρι χαππαδοχων προηλθον.   Sacae usq, ad Cappadoces progressi sunt. But asked if this famous nation was all on a sudden loft, he says no more of it under that name, and we hardly can know what became of it. And therefore we are here to make
pg 46
a discovery of what is lain concealed from ancient historians, and to bring to light those great and important things, which they seem to have been ignorant of.

After the Sacae had entered into the upper Phrygia, as if they had gone into another world, they changed their ancient name, which perhaps they abominated, into that of Titans. { margin: Titanes.}   I could never comprehend whether it were through some mystery or other, or mere caprice, that they affected this name, or else that they might thereby making themselves more formidable to the people, against whom they designed to wage war: this is certain, that under this famous name they performed such wondrous and astonishing things, as can not almost be esteemed otherwise than fabulous: however, they were true enough, though we must own they were interlaced with many fictions; and this will appear by what follows.

Acmon, of whom we have already spoken, must've performed very great things in Asia, or else the Titans, who were his subjects, must've been horribly superstitious, to go so far as to give him the appellation of Most High: for in short, the famous Sanchoniathon, who is so much esteemed for his antiquity, and who wrote, as 'tis believed, the history of Phoenicia, before the Tro-
pg 47
jan war, plainly intimates that this prince was styled Most High, Elion in the Phoenician tongue,

{ margin: Sanchon apud Euseb. Prae Evange. l. 1. c. 10. }

and in Greek  υψιςος  Altissimus : it's true, he does not name Acmon, as the Greeks do, after the Titans: but he gives us plainly to understand he must be the person, when he says that this Elion was the father of Uranus, which the Greeks call heaven. And herein this Phoenician author is not mistaken, as we shall see presently, he likewise makes him to be of the race of the Titans, who me other ways calls Aletes, which in Greek implies great rovers; and this name has been justly given to this Celtic people.

>> T1: I have to inject this. The Phoenician language has many common sorts of traits with Hebrew. Elion, could well be spoken in 2 syllables as El-ion. El being god and ion being Ionians and Ionia, or even Ion or Io. Ionians are said by Pezron to be 1 of 3 tribes of Titans/Gomerians, to come into Greece early in time. So Sanchoniathon may have been saying that Acmon was "god" of the Ionians or Ion. I think it quite possible.<<

Sanchoniathon goes a little farther, and says that this Most High, υψιςος
being slain in hunting by an over forwardness, encountering wild beasts, εχ σομβολης θηριων τελευτησας,  cum serarum Congressione periisset, was by his people reckoned among the number of the gods, and his children offered sacrifices and obligations to him, Quem Libatoinibus & Sacrificus Libert Coluere. And this is manifest from what the Greeks say, that they consecrated woods and groves to him in Phrygia, as well as in Cappadocia: if this be true, as there is scarce any room to doubt it, you have here, without controversy, one of the most ancient heathen deities all antiquity can afford us, since he must proceed the
pg 48
time of Abraham, and that of Belus king of Assyria and Babylon.

But before we carry this matter any farther, it will not be improper to observe, that the Titanes, and especially the princes who commanded them, exceeded all others both in bulk and strength of body, and hence it is that they have been looked upon to be terrible people and as it were giants. The Scripture itself, the rule of truth, even give such an idea as this of those people famous and potent men, who according to it, ruled over all the earth. Judith speaking of them { Judith, l. 6. v.6 &7. & Filii Titan. iu Gr. υιος τιτανων } in her fine song, calls them Giants, the sons of the Titans. In the prophet Isaiah informs us also,
that these giants were actually Masters of the world, Γιγαντεσ ος αρξαντες τηςγης.     Gigantes qui terra dominate sunt, and he says they drove the Kings of the nations from their thrones: the Titans therefore were not a fabulous and an imaginary race of man, though the Greeks disguised the history of them with fables, but they were a potent people and gray soldiers, descended from the Giants, who made so much noise all the world over.

Besides all this, we are to add, that they were much addicted to magic, auguries, divinations, satanic old Aleutians and enchantments, and the greatest persons among them, viz. the Priests
pg 49
sacrifices, Kings themselves, and princes of the blood, were the most of any inclined to these profane and diabolical curiosities. That was that the devil, was called the Prince of the world, seduced almost the whole earth, keeping the hearts and minds of men in bondage. This wretched Dominion lasted too long, was not destroyed but by the power and cross of Christ. { margin: Euseb. Prep. l. 2. c: 5. } Hence one of the fathers of the church, who had narrowly inspected into these things, had reason to say, that in these unhappy times they placed Giants, tyrants, magicians, and enchanters in the number of their Kings, and afterwords of their gods.

Chap. 9
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Chap. IX.  (9)                (pg 49 continues)

That Uranus, Prince of the Titans, succeeded his Father Acmon.

It is made to appear by the testimony of Sanchoniathon, that the person whom they styled Most High, it was no other than Prince Acmon, died a violent death, by and over forwardness in encountering wild beasts. The same author also informs us, that Uranus succeeded his father in his dominions, his words are  την το πατρος αρζην,  Patrus principatum & Imperium. This is enough to let us know that Acmon, though he

pg 50
does not name him, was the true father of Uranus, that is of him to whom the Greeks, and after them the Romans, give the name of heaven. But as there may be some so hated to be pleased, that they will still quarrel and contest this truth, which our Phoenician author has not unraveled, it will be necessary to put it in its true light, and to support it with more authorities.

When Phornutus speaks of Uranus in his book De Nutura Deorum, he says, some of the poets wrote that Uranus was the son of Acmon. Thus we see that Simias of Rhodes, and ancient and famous author, and this book de Alιs, gives Uranus the name of Acmonides, as being the son of Acmon, according to the Scholiast, who thus explains the matter,
Αχμονιδαν, λεγει τοω ορανον,    Acmonidαm dicit Uranum, but without mentioning some others, who are also of this opinion, Hesychius, an accurate and learn grammarian, in explaining this word Acmonides, says it signifies Uranus, { margin: Hesych. V. } for as much as that this person was the son of Acmon, Αχμονος γαρπαις  Quin Acmonis filius: I cannot think, now there have so many testimonies been produced, that any will dispute a thing that is confirmed by a train of so many good authors: I have been the more ready to convince them, that none might have room to suppose that I have invented things, that were not known to the Ancients.

It is therefore certain that Acmon, whom some monuments have made famous in Phrygia and Cappadocia, was the father of Uranus: and upon this ground it is, that

pg 51
he ought to be considered as the first and true stock of those who have passed for the greatest and ancient just gods of the heathen world.

Though in reality they were no other than moral man, and even men that were guilty of horrible irregularities, admidst all their power and authority. For who is not heard of the shameful disorders, both of Saturn, who was the son of Uranus, and a Jupiter, whom they revered as his grandson? Lo, these were the great deities of Athens and Rome, these the Omni potent and sovereign God's of the Greeks and Romans. Such was the blindness of mankind in those ignorant and obscure ages of the world.

To return to Uranus, the famous Sanchoniathon assures us, that he succeeded his father after his deceased, and married his own sister,

  αγεταιπρος γαμον την αδελφην Γην,   Matrimonio fibi conjunxit Sororem Terram this Phoenician author, the remains of whose work are translated into Greek, had reason enough for his saying, he married his own sister, and that she was called Terra, for her true name, which the Grecians have happily preserved for us, was Titea, Τιταια, in Latin Titaea. But this word, which signifies Earth or earthly, is also taken from the Celtic language. For Tit among them signifies Earth, as well as among the Hebrews; and here let me observed by the way that the ancient name of the city of Paris was not Lutetia, from the word Lutum, Clay or mire. This is to dishonor an ancient city, to give it such an origin, which is rather Latin than Gaulish; but the true name
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was Leuco-titia, which signifies white Earth, because it was built of plaster, which is still be found in the neighborhood of it. But here I must note, that as Titea in the Celtic language signifies Earth, so Uran and Uren is as much as to say, a man of heaven, for in this language Earth is a man, from whence came the Latin word Vir, and En, even at this very day signifies heaven. And that which is singular, is (as?) the Grecians called the heavens, ουρανος, from this Prince's name, as Sanchoniathon has very well observed.

Moreover, it is not without reason that this Prince of the Titans has been called Uranus, a man of heaven. For ancient historians inform us, that he was given to the study of astronomy, and to know the nature influences, revolutions, with several motions of the stars. That he had by the help of the science, as well as by that of augury and divination, foretold strange surprising events to his people. And as they were much taken up in admiration and astonishment, they looked upon him to be a heavenly man, who in some sort participated of the nature of the gods. But as this Prince might be learned this way, it may be said of him, he was no less ambitious in his nature, and twas this noble ardour of mind which formed the heroes of old, that made them undertake great enterprises. For we find by history that this put him upon enlarging the bounds of his dominions which were yet continued within Phyrgia and some other provinces of the lesser Asia.
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with this design he passed the Bosphorus, and carried his arms into Thrace and Greece, and even penetrated into the Isle of Crete, now called Candia. The government of which he conferred upon one of his brothers, who had 10 sons, whom they called Curetes. { margin: Diodor. Sic Hist. l. 3. post med.} Being not satisfied with these conquests, he fell furiously upon the other provinces of Europe, and carried all before him even to the utmost boundaries of Spain; nay, if we believe Diodorus Siculus, he penetrated into those parts of Africa, that border upon the Atlantic Ocean, and which have since been called Mauritania. And as if all this were not enough to satiate his ambition, he made inroads into the northern provinces, which he brought under his dominion, as well as the other parts of Europe, which like to the self. So that it's no wonder that the people bordering on the Atlantic, whose history Diodorus gives us, say that Uranus was then Prince, and ruled over them, and affirm that this hero reduced a great part of the world under his Empire, and especially of those countries that laid to the West and North: besides which, Sanchoniathon makes it manifest enough to us, { margin: Sanchon. Apud. Euseb. l. 1. c. 10.} that his father and he were Masters of Syria and Phoenicia.

All these things being considered, it was not without reason that Isaiah said of old, that the ancient giants govern the Earth: Gigantes, quiterrae dominati sunt,

Αρξαντες της γης. And that they drove the Kings of the nations from their thrones. They are these same Giants, whom Judith calls, the

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Sons of the Titans :  They are very often in Scripture, and especially in the Septuagint version, termed Γιγαντες  the Giants, Τιτανης the Titans,
Earth born, or children of the Earth. And I am strangely mistaken, if they were not these Giants, and these Titans with their race that were meant by the Hebrew word Rephaim, from the singular Rapha, which signifies hail, robust, strong and potent, as the Titans were. Perhaps there may be more than a bare conjecture in it, but we cannot stay did discuss it in this place. I shall only say, in reference to these Giants and Titans, that they were called the sons of the Earth, or rather assumed it themselves, with no other design than to make the people fear and reverence them, by concealing their true descent. For as an ancient author observes very well, so great was the simplicity of the people of old, that they called strangers that came among them, whom they did not know, nor from whence they came, the sons of heaven, and the sons of the Earth. And this made Tertullian (Apologet. c. 10) say, as he was controverted in the divinity of Saturn, that he was one of these Titan princes. The words are remarkable; all historians, says he, and ancient authors, has spoken Saturn no otherwise than as he was a man. "If then he was a man, he was begat by another man. You cannot then say he speaks to the heathens, that he was the son of the heavens, and of the Earth, it is an error that arises, from his origin being not known, and because it was not known of what family he came, and it was an
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easy matter to entertain such an opinion, that the heaven and the earth were his parents, which my justly enough be called the parents of all mankind.
" This great man a little farther says, the common people call those the children of the Earth, whose origin is uncertain; Quorum Genus incertum est. This was also the opinion of the Minucius Felix, Lactancius, and several others.

Tertullian had undoubtedly reason for what he said; but as all ancient traditions made Saturn to be the son of heaven and Earth, the heathens could not but believe it. Their error therefore, had some grounds for it, which indeed was no other than the cunning and policy of the first Titans, who gave the name of Uranus or Heaven to the father Saturn, as they gave that of Titea to his mother, which signified Earth. This is that mystery, which neither the ancient Grecians nor the Romans could unravel, which indeed could not but be affected without the help of the Celtic tongue, which was the language of the Titans; and without that of ancient history.

Chap. 10
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Chap. X.  (10)        page 56

That Saturn, the Son of Uranus, was the first King of the Titans.

{ margin: Κρονος  Lat. Staurnus.} All the ancient historians that of rotor Saturn, called Chronos by the Greeks, agree with the poets, that he was the son of Uranus. Hesiod in his Theognus, Apollodorus in his history, entitled, bibliotheca, and some others after them, say, he was the youngest of all his sons; and therefore the same Apollodorus, speaking of him, calls him { margin: Apol. l, i. c. i. Sanchon. apud Eus.l. i. c. 10 }

Νεωτατον απαντων Novissimum omnium Saturnum. But Sanchoniathon is not wholly of his mind, for that historian called Saturn Ιι, Ιλον

which was the name the Phoenicians gave him, and is the same as El among the Hebrews, which signifies strong and valiant. This Prince was of a fierce and lively temper, but at the same time cunning, and full subtlety, as Hesiod sets him out in his Theognus, wherein he calls him Αγχυλομητης χαι δενοτατος παιδων Vaser & accerinius inter liberos, he means of the children of Uranus. It seems as if there were nothing but truth in the idea these ancient poets give us of Saturn. For it was his cunning and artifice, as well as the pernicious advice of his mother Titaea, whose jealousy transported her beyond all just bounds, and that put them upon rebelling against his father,
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seizing several of his provinces, and depriving him of a great part of his power. It was by the same artifices that he gain the affection of some of his sisters, and especially of Rhea, a cunning and daring lady, who his father is sent, by dark and secret means, to make away with him. Lastly, it was by the same subtlety and management, that he waylaid his father, who usually resided in maritime countries, and after many years contest and civil wars got him into his power. This confinement of Uranus by his own son affected him to that degree, that he died of Grief. For we had better take out with this opinion, and following without as some historians, who say he died a violent death. But let it happen which way it will, Saturn thought himself sole master of all the provinces in Asia and Europe. There were under his father's dominions, which reached even to the utmost boundaries of Spain. But he found his brothers contest this right with him, and especially the eldest, whom they called Titan.

The Empire being in this manner threatened with a cruel Civil War, through the ambition of these princes, and some others that sided with them, Rght and Justice seem to have been put on the side of the eldest brother. But Saturn, the youngest of all, balanced him with power in conjunction with the intrigues and cabals of the women of the court. For his mother Titea, and his sister Rhea, who was also his wife, heartily espoused his interest, their reputation fixed him right in the minds of the grandees and
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the people, so that the eldest brother was obliged to quit his right to the youngest upon certain conditions, stipulated between them.

Saturn having thus by his intrigues and management prevailed over the rest, and the and not content with the bear quality of chief or Prince, the in which his predecessors assumed no other, he would become a sovereign, { margin: Tertull. de Coron. 17.}

and therefore taking upon him a crown or diadem, he was the first of the Titan princes, the took the title of King: Tertullian says thus plainly enough in his book De Corona, Pherecydes. Saturnus Pherecydes ante omnes resert Coronatum. This confirmed by Ennius, or rather Evemerus, { margin: Ennius apud Lact. l. 1. c. 13.} whose history the other had only translated. This ancient authors says, that Uranus had no more than the title of a Prince, Principatum habuit non Regnum; but this Saturn having heaped up vast riches, took the name and quality of King. Postea Saturnus majores sibi opes Comparaverit, ac regium Nomen asciverit. { margin: Diodor. l. 3. Epiphan. in Ancor. c. 103.}

This Wealth, which he took care to keep up, and of which he appeared somewhat too greedy, has in some measure blasted his memory, he being looked upon as a covetous Prince.

But since we have quoted Tertullian upon the account of Saturn, there is one thing to be learned from him, which I have met with nowhere else, { margin: Tert. lib. dePalio, v. 4. & lib. de Testim. Animae.} and that is, that the Titan Kings took delight in wearing a scarlet robe, or if you will, a jacket, or coat of arms of the scholar. Galitici Ruborus, says he, Supersectio Saturnum Commendat. This
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learned person has reason to give Scarlet the name of Galitici Ruboris, or red of Galatia. For besides, that Saturn reigned in Phrygia, part of which was afterwards called Galatia, from the Gauls or Galatians that settled there, it's to be observed there was no finer Scarlet made anywhere than in this province. Again, the word Scarlet came from the Gaulish language; { margin: Κοχχος χαιυσγινος Coccum & Hysginum.} and it is very remarkable, that both the Greek and Latin words for this color are deduced from the same language, without being ever discerned, no more than 1000 others. I might say the same thing concerning Saturn, but that I shall reserve for another work, which I designed to entitle the origin of nations; of which this is but a summary.

I shall only say here, and it is what seems plainly to occur to me from monuments of antiquity, which cannot be suspected to be fallacious, that his dominion reached from Syria and Phoenicia to Spain, i.e. the utmost boundaries of your that way, and that he was also master of Mauritania in Africa: a vast empire indeed, which became also subject to Jupiter, his son and successor. I shall in another place explained what is said of him, that he devoured his own children; which is a political fiction, and fabulous history, that yet has some ground for. But what is affirmed concerning the prince's marrying his own sister, this is no story, since his father and his sons after him, did the same. The reason of which we shall give by and by.


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This whole relation, wherein there are singular and odd things enough, would be obscure an imperfect, if we should not in this place notice of those brothers and sisters of Saturn, that were most remarkable. I find Titan, was also supposed to be the eldest, was one of them, as Hypercon and Japet were two more, besides some others, which I shall not name. As for his sisters, Rhea was the most famous, whom he took to be his wife, and Themis the famous prophetess, of whom I have already spoken. The sons of Japet, and consequently Saturn's nephew, were Atlas, Prometheus, Menaecus, or Menoetius. This Atlas, who was cousin Germain to Jupiter, had the Mauritania's for his share, and he was the person that has left his name to those famous mountains of Africa. And here I desire it may be observed, that amidst all antiquity we do not meet with the name of Japet or Japhet, which is the same, anywhere but amongst the Titan race, they were the only people of all the world, that took care to preserve this venerable name, because of their dissent from Gomer, the eldest son of this patriarch. And this confirms what Josephus says in his antiquities, { margin: Joseph. antiq. l. 1. c. 6 } where he assures us Gomer was the progenitor of the Gauls, whom the Greeks call Galatians.

Notwithstanding all I have said concerning Saturn, and looks as if I had not done enough, without I added somewhat concerning the two different names he had. The Greeks call him no otherwise than Chronos or

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 in their language, but he is always called Saturn by the Romans, which in effect is the same name he had among the Titans, who called him Sadorn, i.e. martial, warlike, and we find even to this very time in the Celtic or Breton language, which is the same as that of the Titans, that De Sadorne is Saturday, from which the Romans made Dies Saturni, as of Di Lunae, Monday, Dies Martus, Tuesday, and so of the rest of the planets, the Latin words for all which are certainly taken from the Celtic tongue, as I shall show in another place. This being so, it is a mere dream to derive the name of Saturn, from the Hebrew Satar, to hide, as if Saturn had not had his name, before he fled for his security into Latium or Italy, which happened not till towards the latter end of his days. As to Κρονος, the name given him by the Grecians, it is certain they advance nothing but trifles concerning it.

This name in all appearance was taken from the Phrygians, from whom the Greeks, according to the confession even of Plato, borrowed many words: wherefore Κρονος seems to come from Kroone, which signifies crowned. Because Saturn was the first of the Titan princes that wore a crown, and it was in Phrygia that he kept his court, were perhaps he took the dignity first upon him; and so there is no cause of wonder that the Phrygians should give him this name, from whom it was transmitted to the Grecians. It's known that Rio was both wife and sister to Saturn, which is a
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thing nowadays wondered at, and that justly, too. But we shall show in another place the reason of this custom, which was also used by the Persians, Egyptians, Carian's, and some other nations. Rhea in Celtic signifies a lady, as Rhy does a Lord. The Greeks and Romans are to be pitied, that they can give no better etymologies of these names of these pretended deities, which are all false, and have, if I may say so, neither rhyme nor reason in them. All these names come from the language of the Titans, which was no other than that of the Celtae, and whoever is not acquainted with this language, which is still in being in some parts of France and in Britain, will make nothing of it but guesswork, wonder and shoot besides the Mark; this may be seen plainly enough in the names of the succeeding princes.

Chap. 11
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Chap. XI.  (11)            (page 62 continues)

Jupiter makes War against his Father Saturn, and after his Death reigned alone over the Titans.

Everybody knows from the authority of ancient history, that he whom the Romans called Jupiter, for that was not his true name, made a cruel war against his father. It was so, we may be surprised at
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it, and we sometimes with the thoughts thereof grow outrageous, that the sun should form such a revolt against his father, and prosecute him with his arms. History indeed furnishes us with the like examples, but they have been such as were ever report, even amongst the most fierce in barbarous nations: and therefore Jupiter, as much a deity as he is made to be, must be condemned upon the score, and his actions branded with the hated Characters of barbarity and impiety. However we must confess that something occurs to us, that seems to render them not so unjust and odious, of which by-and-by.

I have said before in showing how Saturn came to the Empire, that Titan, his eldest brother, did not renounce the same under him, but upon certain conditions, agreed upon between them, and this last growing outrageous that they were not performed on the part of Saturn, studied ways to be revenged on him, in order to which he surprised Saturn with his wife Rhea, somewhere in Thrace, if I'm not mistaken, and having them in his power, he strictly Them under a guard in a strong and well fortified place: Jupiter, who was then a young man, full of spirit, but had not yet come out of the Isle of Crete, where he was educated, coming to hear of the miserable imprisonment of his father, embarked a body of troops, with which, having fought, and defeated his uncle Titan’s Army, he set his father at liberty, and restored him to his throne. After which he returned victo-
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riously, and full of glory into Crete. This we learn from Ennius in his sacred history, as related by Lactantius in these words, Jovem adultum venisse cum magna Cretensium multitudine, Titanumq, ac filios ejus pugnindo vicisse. Parentes vinculus exemisse, Patri regnum reddidisse. Atq, ita in Cretem remeasse.  These were the first and happy achievements of this Prince, as they are noted in history.

Lactantius, relates them upon the credit of Ennius, that have them from Evemerus, makes no scruples of delivering them for truth, he being by no means willing to reject the testimonies of ancient authors, though at the same time he well knew how to distinguish them from the poets and other vain fictions of those times: and therefore he makes no scruples to say before he produces them, Aperiamus ea quae veris literis Continentur, ne Poetarum ineptias in accusardis religionibus sequi probare videamur.  This learned father had no other design and produce and these ancient historians, improving to the Gentiles, by witnesses of unsuspected credit, that Saturn and Jupiter had been great man in the world, and their authority and grand actions extended so far as to get them to be placed in the number of the gods: which is also said by Lactantius.
Quibus ex rebus, cum constet illos homines Suisse: Non obscurum est, qua ratione Du caeperunt nominari But nothing so fully confirms this truth, which entirely destroys the false religion of the ancient Greeks, as well as of the Romans, than
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the birth of him, whom they foolishly adored for the Omnipotent God of heaven and Earth.

All the profane authors, and that is much, do agree the Jupiter was the son of Rhea, the sister and wife of Saturn, but they do not so well accord as to the place of his nativity some say it was in the Isle of Crete, taking the place of his education for that of his birth. Others think it was in Arcadia. I am fully of this opinion, which was that of the famous Callimachus, who lived in the reign of the Ptolemy Philadelphus, and of his successor. This learned man in the hymn he made in honor of Jupiter, whom he calls a God ever great, ever raining, confesses at first that he does not know which side to take in respect to the place of his nativity.

{margin: Cillim. Hymno in Jovem. flatim, initio} Quoniam, says he, Jovus Genus controversumΓενος αμφηριςον.  Some pretend they are Callimachus, his words, that you were born in Crete, on Mt. Ida, and others maintain it was in Arcadia, on Mt. Lycaeus.
“O father, who are those that are liars in this particular, the Cretans are always liars, Κρητες αει ψευςαι, Cretentes semper Mendaces. For great King, they have forged a sepulcher for you, whereas you are not did, but live forever.”
In this manner does Callimachus flatter his pretended deity, whose tomb, which was in the Isle of Crete, he would not own, but makes him to be born on Mt. Lycaeus in Parrasia,  a country of Arcadia, inhabited in ancient times by the Apidani. Hence he says afterwords, εν Παρρασιη, Te Rhea peperit. He adds, that the place was sacred, that no

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woman durst approach it, and that they called it in that country (Puerperium) the place where Rhea lay in.

These are the filth and wretched ideas the poets have conceived of their gods. This author will have Arcadia to have been the birthplace of his Jupiter, and will not allow its being buried in Crete, as if he that was born must not die. This is the error, blindness, and stupidity, the finest wits amongst the Gentiles were guilty of. However it is playing by what Callimachus here says, that his Jupiter, whose true name was Jou, Was born in Arcadia upon Mount Lycaeus, which is near the city of Lycosura, and { margin: Paus. l. 8. } which Pausanias would have to be the oldest of all other cities, though that cannot be true any further than respect to Arcadia, and of Greece. But the Opinion of Callimachus seems to me the more to be embraced, besides the Arcadia and seven always insisted that Jupiter was their countryman, born on the top of Mount Lycaeus, upon which account they called it the sacred top. This we learn from the same Pausanius in his Arcadia, which is the eighth book of his description of ancient Greece.

If there is any, So curious to know, who the Princess Rhea chose so remote and solitary a place to bring forth Jupiter, her last child. Her husband Saturn, whether out of religious zeal or some other motives had already put to death or to speak more reverently, sacrifice several of his children to the gods, and the angry ghost of his father. Now Rhea finding herself with child
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of Jupiter, and fearing he might be made a victim as the rest had been, removed for some time far from court, under the pretense of making a voyage into Arcadia, or the Isle of Crete, and the first of which places as aforesaid, she was delivered of a son, who was named Jou, and afterwords Jupiter and to the end his life might be better secured, she caused them to be transported a little while after into Crete, and there was that he was nursed and brought up in his youth, and the recesses of Mt. Ida, among those were called Curetes. The Grecians speak frequently both in their histories and poems of these Curetes, without being never able to know or guess who they were. I shall endeavor to make out presently what they seem wholly to be ignorant of. As for the time or birth of Jupiter, the son of Saturn and Rhea, it's so ancient, as to,, I may say, the latter days of Abraham; nay, if we do believe the Chronicle of Eusebius, it happened before the holy patriarch entered the land of Canaan. But I believe he was mistaken there, and I cannot for many reasons be of his opinion.

Jupiter therefore, all agree, was brought up in the Isle of Crete, and the Curetes, to his care his mother had entrusted him, were to give him education. When he was a little grown up, he boldly adventured to free his father from his confinement, and the hands of his enemies, and not content with that, restored him, as I've said before, to his throne. Some years after, Saturn being grown old, and at the same time
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susceptible of every thing the might give them any umbrage or jealousy; and seeing also his son Jupiter, in the flower of his years, he bethought himself of going to consult the Oracle of the diviners, whereof he had many about him, and without whom he undertook no enterprise. { Margin: Ennius apud Lactan. l. I. c. 14. } They made him answer, that he ought to have a care of his younger son Jupiter, who in time might be likely to dethrone him. Such an answer as this could not fail of making a powerful impression upon the spirits of a Prince, who is already distrustful, fearful and jealous.

It entered into his head, that his son would dispossess him of his crown, which he had placed upon this head, and that he would not fail to treat him after the same manner, as his conscience accused him he had done by his own father Uranus. From thence forward he began to form designs how we might entrap and get them into his power, but as that young prints had the address to elude them, it came at last to an open rupture. { margin: Jul. Firm. lib. de Errore profan. Religion.} Jupiter, to be secure from danger, found the safest and most expeditious way was to win over to his interest these whom his father had entrusted with the government of the Isle of Crete, where he always resided, he concerned his affairs so well and managed them with that secrecy, that upon Saturn's entering into that island to carry on the war against them, he was the trade by those the most confided in: and so the Sun obtained the victory more by artifice and good management, them by force of arms. Saturn finding himself betrayed and
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defeated, and with all, that he could not be safe in a country, where everything was at the disposal of his enemies, quitted the island with some troops, and fell into that part of Greece, afterwards called Peloponnesus. His son being incensed with his pernicious designs against them, which tended to no other than to take away his life, follow him close, and have in obliged him to fight, overcame him a second time. Upon which Saturn finding himself in a forlorn state, and that he had no secure retreat throughout all Greece, he hastened and Italy, the better to save himself from the violent prosecutions of his enemies.

There are many learned men of opinion, that Julius Firmicus, who in the time of Constantius, the son of Constantine the great, wrote against the errors of the heathen religion, was much mistaken, when speaking of Saturn, he said that the conquered and fugitive king, concealed himself in a corner of Italy among the Spartans. { margin: Jul. Firm. lib. de Error profan. Religion. }
 Hic ex Creta fugiens, in Italia a Spartanus absconditur.  But these learned men reprehend Firmicus, because they knew not that some years before the death of the patriarch Abraham, when Jupiter made war against his father, there were some Spartans in Italy, yea, there were some of them there ever since that time, and you shall see by and by that they incorporated with the Umbrians and the Aborigines. { margin: Auctor Origin Sent. Rom. Servius in l. 8. AEneid. & alii. } Antiquity informs us that Janus rained at that time over the aborigines, in that part of Italy adjoining to the Tiber, when Saturn came thither for refuge.
pg 70               >>This showed as page 80 in print, an error in type setting, and pagination, no doubt.<<

This country was afterwards called Saturnia, from name of that Prince, that was very kindly received by him who, by all appearance, govern their only by his authority, and during his pleasure. If we believe ancient history, he reigns some time with the same Janice, as we learn from some places in Tertullian.

Jupiter, finding his father was fled, and out of sorts, made good use of his victories, and extending the boundaries of his empire. But his prosperous fortune had like to have proved fatal to him through the jealousy conceived of him by the greatest part of his kindred, who are called Titans in history, and might be his cousin-Germans, when they found that he had overthrown and expelled his father out of all Greece, and thereby went to make himself master of an Empire, to which they had as well grounded pretensions as himself. These formed a strong confederacy against him, and having drawn together a great Army gave him battle. But the event proving favorable to this young Prince, he ruined the forces of his enemies and obliged them to dispense and shift for themselves, to avoid the effect of his just displeasure. We reason to believe, but what monuments of antiquity that have been conveyed down to us, that they retired into Spain, that is to the utmost parts of the West, and that Saturn finding himself not safe in Italy, went thither to them.

There it was that they renewed war, which lasted long time by sea and land with various success, but Jupiter at last
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having drawn his maritime forces together, and had the address to bring over some of the Confederates to his side, went even as far as Spain in person, in order to put an end to war that had for so many years been on foot. He fought his enemies all in the body, and obtained a complete victory, { margin: Didym. Schol. in l. 8. Iliad ad, v. 479 } if we believe this scholiast on Homer, that goes by the name of Didymus. This great battle, that decided the fortune of the Empire of the Titans, was fought near Tartesa, and ancient famous city upon the ocean, a little above Cadiz, to the northward. This author calls them Giants, that fought against Jupiter, because they were really so, but others name them Titans.

Justin seems to confirm the thing, { margin: Justin. Hist. l. 4. c. 4. } where he writes, that the Curetes lived formally in forests, near to Tartesa, wherein it was said that the Titans made war against the gods. By which Jupiter, and those of his side are meant, { margin: Voss. Not. in Justin. Hist. Ib.} as by the Titans, we are to understand those that took part with his father Saturn. And here will not be improper to observe that Isaac Vossius? Was mistaken in his notes upon Jupiter, were he says, “that there were never any Curetes in the woods by the Tartesa, instead of which words we ought to read Cyretes,” for where ever there were any of the Titans, as there were some undoubtedly in these parts, there were also Curetes, who were their soothsayers, priests and sacrificers.

This was the issue of that long and cruel war between the Titans upon the account of Saturn and Jupiter. It lasted a full 10 years Ενιαυτος δεχα, according to the poets and historians,
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it's not known what became afterwards of the unfortunate Saturn, unless it were that retiring at last into Sicily, he died there with grief, and under the pressures of old age.  ( Nesiod. in Theog. Apol. l. i. c. 2. Schol. AEschil. in Prometh ).  For if we believe the authority of Philocorus the historian (Clem. Alesan. Admon. ad Gent. Tertul. in Apologetio. c. 10.), there it is that they showed his sepulcher. This was the end and fortune of him who profane historians looked upon to be the origin of the heathen deities, which made Tertullian say, in speaking of the Gentiles, they had no knowledge of any God before Saturn, Ante Saturnum Deus Penes vos nemo. It was in him began all, at least the chief and most noted of their deities. That which makes that great man speak thus, is, because Uranus, the father Saturn, was not so famous is he, nor his divinity so well confirmed in the lives of mortals. He presently adds, that which we know for certain concerning the condition and origin of Saturn, will serve to fix that of his posterity.He afterwards shows from history that this pretended Deity was a man like other man, and that he was entertained by Janus in a corner of Italy, where he reign for some time jointly with that prince; from whence the heathens inferred, that he was very just. Undoubtedly if Saturn was a man, he was the son of another man. Si homo Saturnus, utiq, ex homine. And feeling he was begot by a man, he cannot be said to have been the son of heaven and Earth: all the ancient fathers, who in their writings have taken upon them to controvert the divinity
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of these imaginary Gods, as spoke of them much after the same manner as Tertullian. They made no scruple to own that Saturn and Jupiter were warlike and powerful men, that ruled over nations. And anyone may read what Athenagoras, Theophilus of Antioch, Minutius Felix, Arnobius, Lactantius, St. Augustine, and others, say upon this account.

Chap. 12
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Chap. XII.  (12)        page 73 continues

That Jupiter, the sum of Saturn, reigned alone over the Titans.

After a long more above mentioned, the death of Saturn, which happened soon after, Jupiter finding himself sole master of that last Empire, which his father possessed, and which reached from the Euphrates to the utmost boundaries of Spain, he did according to the example of his father and grandfather, make an alliance with Juno, who was the heroine of the Grecians. So that Princess became his wife, as well as she was before his sister, & Soror & Conjux. These incestuous marriages are, and not without good reason, condemning them forward in our days, but such as suited these ancient times, when violence and beast reality prevailed as well is barbarity.
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However, the source of marriages were common among the Chaldeans, Egyptians, Persians, Macedonians, Carians, and perhaps the ancient Latins or Aborigines. To say nothing of the Athenians, among whom sometimes these horrible irregularities were practiced. And indeed the Titan princes, instead of considering these alliances as incestuous, made a matter of religion of them. This is what the Curetes inspired into them, and the same was done by the Magi to the Kings of Persia, and it seems to me as if all this came originally from the Chaldeans of Assyria and Mesopotamia, and to whose heads the devil himself put it.

But to return to Jupiter, this potent princes finding yourself fixed on the throne, took pleasure to go from time to time, and see the provinces subject is Empire. And we learn from history that he entrusted the government of those situate to the West with his brother Dis, whom the Greeks call Pluto, within the bounds of which we are to comprehend Gaul and Spain. We are to take notice that in that time Telamon, was better known by the name of Atlas, had the sovereign authority in the more Western countries of Africa, since called Mauritania. It's like he was fixed there since the war of the Titans, and that Jupiter did not molest him, he being his cousin Germaine, as he was the son of Japet, the brother Saturn, this Prince was of a gigantic stature and strength, thence it was that the Celtae or Titans, gave him the name of Telamon, for Tel or Tal
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in that language signifies high, tall or lusty, and mon or man is man. The Atlas of the Latins implies very near the same thing, the word being made of Altus, by the transposition of a letter only. This person, as well as the other Titan princes was well skilled in auguries and divinations, and more particularly in astronomy, and was his skill in the science, together with the bulk and strength of his body, they gave occasion to all the ancient fables made of him. He had, among others, a daughter, named Maia, i.e, flowry, who also became Jupiter's wife, by whom he had the famous Teutat or Hermes, who was better known by the name of Mercury, and held in great veneration not only among the Gauls, but also among the Teutones or Germans.

But to return to our great King, or so it was that the ancients called Jupiter, it's a hard matter to tell exactly what sort of life he led, and how we govern his Empire. Those in ancient times write the history of the Isle of Crete, are no ways wanting, highly to extol him, and say, he excelled all other princes and strength, courage, Prudence, justice, and other virtues, they took so much pains to go and regulate things for the good of the public, that he punished injuries, and punished violence and other irregularities. These are the large Encomiums given him by Diodorus Siculus, upon the Authority of the historians of Crete. Ennius, as quoted by Lactantius, entertains us us almost with the same account of him:

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But there are others, would make us believe that after this Prince had dethroned his father, his sovereign authority somewhat degenerated into tyranny, or that at least it was tainted with some outrageous acts, and this undoubtedly was the reason or pretense at least that Juno had, and some other princes and princesses of the blood, to form a dangerous conspiracy against him, which yet by the informations he had, he easily detected and disappointed.

This monarch might therefore upon several occasions proceed so far, as to abuse the sovereign power lodged in his hands: however it is confessed by all, that he did the Grecians a great deal of good. Since they assure us, he employed all his power to root out the robbers and outlaws, who sheltered themselves in the mountains and forests of Thessaly, Macedonia, and Illyria, and perpetrated a 1000 villanies and outrages. They were known by the names of Pelogons or Pelagons, Eucheleans, and Ceraunians. They were a fearsome potent people, by reason of bulk and strength of body passed for terrible Giants, that dared adventure to make war against the gods; that is, Jupiter and the princes of his country. Callimachus was something to be in it that was great, since in the beginning of his Encomium he is called the router out of the Pelagonians, Πηλαγονων ελατηρα Pelagonum seu Terrigenum Expulsorem.  He had reason to do his utmost to destroy them, for he often kept his court near Mount Olympus, { margin: Callim. hymn. in Jovem.} and the delightful parts of Thessaly, adjoining to Macedon,
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where these cruel Rovers lived, were so troublesome to him and his people. But to clear this point as to Mount Olympus, we shall give you here, what Lactantius says { margin: Evem. apud Lac. l. 1. divin. Institu  c. 11 }   of it upon the authority of the history of Evemerus, translated into Latin by Ennius. We learn, says that father, from the same history, that this King has sometimes resided in the delightful recesses of Mt. Olympus, which is set down in these words: at that time Jupiter spent much of his time on Mount Olympus: Ea tempestate Jupiter in monte Olympo maximam partem vitae Colebat.”  There was it he came to administer justice, when matters of difference and controversy were brought before him; and if anyone had found out some invention, that might be useful to the public, and for the benefit of mankind, he would sit there give to him and account: seeing therefore this potent King often resided at Mount Olympus, and that after his decease he was taken for the God of heaven, hence it was that the poets took this famous mountain, which is the highest in all Greece, for heaven, as Lactantius has well observed.

Finally this great man, after it ruled over a great part of the world, and made his name immortal, died like other man; and Ennius, after Evemerus assures us, it was in the Isle of Crete. AEtate pessum acta, in Creta vitam Commutavit.  Soon after which he adds, that is sepulcher was in the city of Gnossus/Knossos, { margin: Ennius apud Lac Ib. } Et Sepulchrum ejus est in oppido Gnosso:  Lactantius conferences by the authority of Cicero, who speak-
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ing of Jupiter of Crete, the son of Saturn, says they showed his tomb in that island, {Cujus in illa Insula Sepulcrum ostenditur:}

{ margin: Cicer.apud Lac. l. 1. c. 11. } It was a treasure the Cretans always valued themselves upon; and it was not upon this account that they were liars, let Callimachus say what he pleases, who vainly reproaches them with taking a delight to forge a tomb for Jupiter, Etenim Sepulcrum, ταφον O Rex, Cretenses fabricarunt:  But this poet { margin: Callim hymn. in Joven } imposes upon them in this particular, and it is he himself that is in the wrong:  for the Cretans were not liars, and boasting Jupiter's sepulcher was in their island and, but they were vain, and made themselves ridiculous to adore it, as that of an immortal God, and that is what they have always done, as Julius Fermicus { margin: Jul. F. 2, lib. de Errore prof. Relig. } assures us, Avanus Cretensibus adhuc mortui Jovis tumulus adoratur.

Hence we see what was the end and fortune of the great Jupiter, who in the early ages of time made such a noise and commotion in the world. This was the man, whom the Grecians, with all their wisdom, and the Romans, with all their gravity, have esteemed, acknowledged, and even adored, for the great God of Heaven and Earth, who had thunder and lightning in his power.

Strange was the folly, and prodigious the blindness of mankind, out of which they have not been able to recover, for the space of so many ages, since we may venture to say, that the world has been guilty of these abominations irregularities for above 2000 years; for it was more than that from the death of Ju-
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piter, to the Nativity of Christ, who by his grace has at last brought people out of this error.

If any should be so curious as to know how long Jupiter lived, and how many years he rained, I find the course of his days were 120 years, like those of Moses, who came about 300 years after him, and as for his Reign, it may have lasted about threescore and two years after his father's death. And 72, from the time he first made war against them. Suidas, { margin: Suidas v p 519 (>>shows the Greek spelling of Picus refered a few lines down<<)} who had seen the ancient Authors, is the person that informs us the Jupiter died at the age of 120.
Τελευτα, ζησας χ χαι εχατον ετη, Mortuus est cum vixisset annos centum atq; viginti.  We have no reason to suspect this authority, seeing we find it confirmed by the Chronicle of Alexandria, in express terms. He had said a little before, { margin: Chron. Alexan. p. 87, & 89. } that he rained 62 years over the West, and in Italy; which may be true enough, if we compute the duration of his empire, from the death of Saturn. For then it was that he became entirely a sovereign both of Italy, and all the West. The author this Chronicle calls Jupiter always Picus, Πηχος. And Suidas does the same,  Πηχος ο χαι Ζευς. It was a surname given this Prince, which shall be accounted for by and by.

Having said so many new and curious things concerning the person, the Romans called Jupiter, the next thing, for better satisfaction of the reader, is to inquire what was his true name; for we find he
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had really many as well as the Queen, his wife. I am almost confident that his true name, and that which he had among the Titans, was Jaou, or rather Jou, i.e. Young; for he was indeed the youngest of Saturn's children. And this is so clear, that the Bretons, who preferred the Celtic language to our own time, which was the same as that of the Titans, when they would express the day of Jupiter, which is Thursday in Latin Dies Jovis, they call it Di jou, and by way of softening the word, Diz-Jou, which is the same thing. All of which implying no more than the day of Jou or Jupiter. Hence amongst the first and most ancient Latins, he was simply called Jovis, and not Jupiter, as afterwords: was still more, the name of Jupiter, does not come from Juvans Pater, as Cicero believes upon the antiquity of Varro, who persuaded all the Romans of his time to believe it. For anciently they wrote the word Jaopiter, Joupitier and Jupater, from which afterwards they made Jupiter, by which the Latins have preserved his right name of Jou, to which they've added that of Pater or Father, is he was esteemed to be a God, and that God was the father of man.

Thus you see all that mystery unraveled, which the most learned of the Romans could not comprehend, viz. why from Jupiter the nominative, to speak after the manner of the Grammarians, they made not Jupitris and Jupitri and the oblique cases, instead of Jovis and Jovi, etc. for it is plain by what I have said, that they preserve the first and
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real name of the supposed divinity in these oblique cases. Moreover, the Grecians commonly give Jupiter the name of Ζευς , From which they made Διος, δις, δια, in the other cases, though without reason, for the word Ζευς is properly the Deus of the Latins, and both one and the other came from the Δεος  of the ancient Aeolian's; insomuch that the true name of Jupiter in Greek is Δις , Though it is not used, from which they have made Διος  and the other cases. But this word Δις properly signifies a bright or lucid, in Latin lucidus, as the Curetes or Salians called Jupiter, and this name came originally from the Cretans, who call the day and light, Di, as the Celtae or Bretons do at this day.

Jupiter had also the surname of Picus, in Greek Πειχος, because that in his arteries and divinations he much observed a bird called Picus, or Picus Martius by the Romans, being the same that we would call a woodpecker. Pliny, speaking of these birds, says they were in great use in auguries: picked, Martis Cognomine, insignes & in Auspicus magni. This great man farther adds, Ipsi principals Latio sunt in Augurus a Rege, qui Nomen buic Avi dedit. less mistaken in this, for it was not King Picus that gave name to this bird but it was from the bird communicated to several Kings of the Latins, and even to Jupiter himself, who made much use of it in the auguries he tried, in reference to his wars.

Farther, this word Picus, or Πειχος, is also Celtic, the same coming from Bec, or
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Pec, which is the rostrum, or beak; and this bird we speak of, is continually pecking the trees, from which he had the name of Picus.

Jupiter, in the manner already declared, being known call by several names, the Queen, his wife and sister, had also more than one: the Grecians gave her that of Ηρα, as aforesaid, which signifies a lady, and this name comes properly from the Phrygians language, from whence the Grecians had it, as well is the Teutones, or Germans, who still say Herr or Heer, for Dominus; and from thence, comes the Latin word Herus and Hera, as you shall see elsewhere; for it is an error to think, as many of the learned now do, that the northern people borrow so many words and their languages of the Greeks and Romans.

As for Juno, the name commonly given this princess, I suppose it came from Guen, or Guyn, which signifies white, or fair, in the Celtic language, and so by Juno, if I am not mistaken, is meant no more than fair and white. That which gives countenance to this opinion is, that we found Juno in ancient glossaries was called Jolenta, which seems to come from the word Jolly, and hence perhaps it is that the name Jolant has been very common in former ages. Now all the names of the princes and princesses that of reign over the Titans, being taken from the Celtic tongue, is a manifest proof that they were descended from that famous nation, that afterwards fixed in Gaul.
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having said so much of the great actions of Acmon and Uranus, and more especially of Saturn and Jupiter, were princes of so much fame among the Titans, it would look odd if I should not say something concerning the times wherein they lived, and made themselves be so much talked of. I have not taken a little pains to see what ancient authors have said upon this occasion, and I find the Jupiter began to reign when Isaac was about half his age, and some years after Abraham's death, and this is what may be made out from ancient historians, such as Evemerus, Ennius, Thallus, and some others, who all agreed that Jupiter reigned in the time of Belus, the first King of Assyria; which quadrates very exactly with the opinion of those who made the verses of the Sybills, which say expressly, that Saturn with his brothers, Titan and Japet, began to rain with the 10th generation, Δεχατη, Decima AEtas, seu Generatio, after the deluge they were those whom people called the children of heaven and earth, because they excelled all other men in virtue and strength; Quod cunctus Homines Virtute prairent. Now the 10th generation, reckoning from the deluge, exactly answers the time of Abraham. Saturn must therefore begin his reign many years after Abraham had been on the land of Canaan. Nay, his father Uranus must have already been very potent in Asia, and also your, in the time of Thera, the father of Abraham. All this seems plain to me, upon my examining those monuments of antiquity that
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we still have remaining, but the Chronicle of Eusebius, which has been regulated by the ancient historians, and more especially by those that relate to the Isle of Crete, leave us no room to doubt the matter. We are informed by it, that Cres, who is one of the Curetes, who had care of the education of Jupiter, reigned in Crete, and that he was the person from whom this island had its name.

{ margin: Euseb. Chron.Graec. p. 91.} His circiter Temporibus,  Κατα τοτος τος Χονος Εβασιλευςε Κρης , apud Cretam regnavit Cres indigena, quem aiunt unum Suisse Curetarum, a quibus Jupiter absconditus & nutritus est. Ab hoc ipso Creta, Insula Creta appellate est.  Eusebius, by these words, points out the years between the 50th and 60th of Abraham's life. Now Jupiter, according to his calculation, must've begun his reign about the latter and of Thera’s life, and so must be much older than I have made him. But I have many reasons to make me believe Eusebius must be mistaken, to make them of so οld a standing as he does, and therefore this Titan princes ought not to be put any higher, that about the time, when Isaac was attained to half his days, and he could not precede Moses above 300 years.

As for this Cres we have spoken of, and who, according to Eusebius, was the first that reigned in Crete, that is, since the death of Jupiter: he was one of that great monarchs children, who, at his death, for his share, left him that island. Eusebius has reason to call him one of the Curetes, because he was brought up according to the rules of those
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Men known by that name, which made Ennius, { margin: Ennius apud Lac Divin. Institut. ib.I. sp. II.} that is sacred history, say, that Jupiter dying in the Isle of Crete, Curetes Filii sure um curaverunt?, The Curetes, his sons, took care perform their last devoirs to him, and to erect him a funeral monument, which was in the city of Gnossus/Knossos. Cres therefore was Jupiter's son. There are some historians to speak no otherwise of him, and he reigned after his deceased in Crete, while others governed elsewhere, for, as Ennius observes, after Evemerus; Jupiter divided his empire, which was very large, between his relations and friends; Omnibusq, Amicus & Cognatus suis Imperium divisit. Cres had the kingdom, which from his name was called Crete, and the word in Celtic signifies Daring or Bold.

Chap. 13
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Chap. XIII.  (13)

Who the Curetes were, so famous amongst the Titans.

Seeing I have in the series of this discourse so often mentioned the Curetes, who were entrusted with education of Jupiter, and that his son Cres was one of their number, I cannot but say something concerning them in this place, and I shall the more readily do it, { margin: Strabo Geogr. l. 10.ap.308. ad 326 } because they are so often mentioned in ancient history; and indeed 'tis very strange,

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that neither the Greeks, nor the Romans, could never exactly tell who they were. Strabo, in his 10th book of geography, speaks more of them than any one of the ancient authors, is known to have been an exact and learned person, and yet after all his discourse in arguing, it is easy to discover he is not satisfied with himself; and indeed he had reason for it: this therefore seems to me to be the truth of things, so far as I have been able to make out, from the customs of the Titans, and perusing of ancient authors.

The Curetes in the time of Saturn, Jupiter, and the other Titans, where the same as what, in after ages, the Druids and bards, so famous among the Gauls, have been. There were the priests and sacrifice are is, who were to take care of what belong to religious matters, and the worship of the gods. And as it was a notion prevalent in those times, that they had converse with them by way of divination, and soothsaying, and the art of magic, that is the reason that all the Curetes were magicians, diviners, and enchanters, as the ancients readily owned them to be. To them also be ascribed the knowledge of the stars, of nature, and of the poets, so that they were besides, astronomers, physicians, poets, etc. they cured the sick by the use and virtue of herbs, and especially enchantments. Such men as these were the Curetes, and the Druids after them; but there was this difference, that the Curetes in the time of the Titans, did not fail to go to war, and therefore they were pro-

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vided with arms, and they believed in dance so nimbly with them on, beating on their shields with their javelins, there was from this custom, if I may presume to say it, they were called Curetes: for you must know, that Curo in the Celtic tongue, is the same thing as Κροω in Greek, which was made by the transposition only of a letter, and the Pulso of the Romans, which signifies to be, or strike one thing against another.

This is so manifest, that these Curetes, according to Dionysius of Hallicarnasus, where the same as the Salii, so well known amongst the Sabines and Romans, and it is certain these last had the name of Salii upon no other account, then that they leapt and dance, as the Curetes did by being their shields with their javelins. Besides, we may see farther, that the name of Curites, or Quirites, amongst the Romans, came from the same origin, which the ancients knew nothing of. As to the customs of the Curetes,let us search and find a few examples or testimonies, from ancient authors. The Curetes, who looked after Jupiter in a cave, says Apollodorus, beat their shields with their javelins, { margin: Apoll. Bib. l. 1.  c. 1. }

Κυρητες τοις Δορασι τας Ασπιδας Συνεχρον  Curetes Hastibus Scuta quatiebant. And this they did, that Saturn might not hear son Jupiter cry. The Curetes therefore were armed, and in all appearance went to war; whereas Caesar in his commentaries { margin: Caesar Com. l. 6. } says, the Druids amongst the Gauls were freed from it; but the bards, who were the Gaulish poets, were not. For those they were of the same body with the Druids, ye
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they were not exempt from going to battle, and actually went to encourage the rest by their eulogies, versus, and poems. In short, the Curetes were held in the same esteem as the Druids, as being the most noble and considerable people of their country; they were the persons  { Plato in Alcib. Cicer. l. 1. de Divin. & alii. }  who had care of the education of the youth, even of the Kings and princes Children, in the same manner as the Magi among the Parthians and Persians, their authority was so great, and so much regarded, that many times it exceeded that of their sovereign, and some of this body have had the fortune to be advanced to the throne.

This seems to be enough concerning the Curetes, who were so famous amongst the Titans and so little known by the ancients, but for the Titans themselves, there is something very singular that is to be observed of them in this place, and the rather because it frequently gravels those who are not much first in the language of ancient authors. More particularly, Homer, in his Iliads, speaking of a small River in Troas, that ran from Mt. Ida into the sea, and that the gods gave it the name of Xantbus, { margin: Homer. Iliad. c. 20: v. 74. }

Ξανθον χαλεοσι Θεοι,   Quem Xanthum vocant Dii; and which men called Scamander; most of those persons to read this poet, no not who these gods were that gave the name of Xanthus to this River, and therefore we are here to let them understand, that those gods of whom Homer speaks there, { margin: Didid. alii. Hom. Hymn. in Apoll. } were no other than the Titans, there were with Jupiter and Saturn, and therefore they

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are by the scholars frequently called Θεοι Τιτενες,  Τιτανες,   Dii Titanes, the Titan gods. And these divine appellations were given them upon account of their being esteemed the descendants of the gods, that is Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter, who amongst the Grecians passed for the great gods in ancient times.

But it is matter of wonder, that they are not the Greeks alone were bared, or burn rather blinded upon this account; we find the Phoenicians, by the testimony of Sanchoniathon, quoted by Eusebius, Bruce bad as they, seeing that historian, who is much valued for his antiquities, says without any mincing it, that the companions of Saturn, whom he calls IL in the Phoenician tongue, which signify God, or rather strong and potent, were called Elohim, or gods;

Οι δε Συμμαχον Ιλο το Κρονο Ελωειμ επεχληθεσαν. Qui vero  Ili, id est Saturne, Socii errant & Commilitones, Dii cognominati sunt; wherefore it is certain, that the ancient heathens looked upon the Titans to be gods, and that they had this great name given them by the Grecians and Phoenicians.

Chap. 14
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Chap. XIV.  (14)            Begins on page 90

That the Titans were true Celtae.

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I might stop here, and say without vanity, that the Titans have done great things in the world in ancient times, and their name was famous amongst the Greeks of old, and that this is a thing not to be contested, since it is confirmed by so many monuments of antiquity. But after all that is been said, does it follow that the Celtae, or Gauls, are their descendants, as we pretend they are? Where are those authors the can say and left it upon record? And how can it be believed without the authority of the ancients? I answer, though I should not be older produce any author that says it in direct terms, yet the names of the princes and princesses, reigned over this famous nation, been all taken from the Celtic tongue, are themselves such strong and convincing proofs, that they are better than the authority of many of the ancients.

Because we live in age where the testimony of a Greek makes a greater impression upon the minds of many persons than the best reason, in query must be made for such, in order to give them all imaginable satisfaction, and that of Callimachus cannot be suspected by any; for though he was
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learned, and caressed by the greatest kings in his time, there is reason to believe he was no great friend to the Celtae, or Gauls. He speaks of these people, and that with much freedom, in his eulogy on the Isle of Delos, anciently consecrated to the son, and says, that the Celtae, a barbarous people, { margin: Callym. Hymn. In Delum, ab. 170. Ad 187 v. Schol. Ibid. } of the race of the ancient Titans, made war upon the Grecians; to which end they came from the remotest parts of the West, that is from Gaul, and that in such vast numbers, that they might be compared to snow falling down from the air, and to the stars there were in the firmament. And little farther he calls them Galates, or Gauls, whom before he had named Celtae, and made to come from the extremities of the West.

The Greek scholar hereupon says plainly enough, that the poet speaks of the year irruption which, Brennus, King of the Gauls, 
Βρεννος των Γαλλων Βασιλευς,  Brennus Galorum Rex, had made into Greece, with the Celtae that he had drawn together in order to plunder the Temple of Apollo at Delphos. But in This Eulogy of Callimachus, the Celtae, {Greek Keltoi  Κελτοι}, are called by no other name than Οψιγονος Τιτανες, by which is meant, that they were the descendants of the Titans, and their true posterity, Titanum Posteri, or rather Titanum vera Posteritas, adding that they came in vast numbers ΑΦ Εσπερο Εσχατοωνος   Ab Occidente remotishmo, from a very remote country, which was the utmost bounds of the West. Can anything be said more distinctly than this? In this eulogy he calls the Celtae, Gauls, he makes
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them to come from the utmost parts of the West, and that you might understand they were a warlike people, he says they were the descendants of the Titans, and their posterity, Titanum Posteri. Shall we then, after this account given us by Callimachus, who was a favorite up the Ptolemy Philadelphus and esteemed one of the most learned men amongst the ancients, make any scruple to believe that the Celtae were the true descendants of the Titans?

We come now to another proof for the confirming what has been advanced by us, and which will, at the same time, inform us that the Druids did not talk it random, when they said, according to the relation we have from Caesar, { margin: Caesar Comm. l. 6. }that the Gauls had their origin from
 Dis; Galli se omnes a dite Patre prognatos praedicant}. You are to understand, that Dis was that person was better known with us by the name of Pluto. This man, who was also put into the number of the gods, was born about Dodana, he was the son of Saturn and Rhea, and consequently the brother of Jupiter. This last Prince having conquered the Titans who confederated against him in behalf of his father, and by his victories dispersed the whole faction that had conspired against him, at the same time finding himself in peace, and that is Empire was too large, he conferred the West upon his brother Dis, that is, he left at least to him the dominions of Gaul and Spain, which are the most Western parts of Europe; { margin: Lact. Divin. Iostit. l.1. c. II. } this is confirmed by Lactancius, Ergo illud in Vero est, quod Regnum Orbis ita partiti sunt
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ut Orientus Imperium Jovi cederet, Plutoni cui Cognomen Agesilao sunt, pars Occidentus obtingeret. It was therefore a truth according to Lactancius, Illud in vero est, that Dis, or Pluto, at the countries of the West for his share, but with some sort of dependence in point of sovereignty upon his brother.

Before Jupiter had by his great victories given peace to Europe, the people were harassed with continual wars, and consequently the whole country full of trouble in commotions: But after his victories all things being in peace and tranquility, it was then that his brother Dis settle Titans in several places, and planted colonies in Gaul and Spain; he was in all appearance their chief, and led them thither in person, and that is the true reason why the ancient Greeks gave him the name of Agesander, or Agesilaus,

Αγησανδρως, χαι Ανεσιλαος, for both these implied the conductor of men, and the conductor of people. This Prince being in Spain, which at that time seems to have been called Tartesa, he found so much gold and silver there, for the like plenty was never known according to Strabo, that he was called Pluto, in Greek Πλοτον, Plutos}, Pluto, or Plutus, that is Rich, and from thence forward was esteemed the God of riches, both by Greeks and Romans.

The size, as Spain was situate in the utmost parts of the West, where the sun seems to set in the ocean, and that the place where it did set, was by the ancient Grecians reputed to be the lower and most inferior part of the Earth; hence the poets and fable makers
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have represented this Prince as the God of inferior regions, or the God of Hell :  { margin: Lactan. divin. In- l. 1. c. II } for as Lactantius, speaking of this matter says very well, “the East, from whence light was communicated to man, seem to be the upper part of the Earth, and the West was taken for the inferior or lower part,” Eo quod plaga Orientis, says that father
, ex qua Lux Mortalibus datur, Superior, Occidentis autem inferior esse videatur, this made Strabo (and that with good reason) believe, that the Greek word Ταρταρος, Tartarus, was made from Tartesa, a country situate in the utmost parts of Spain and the West. Now if Dis lead a colony of Titans or Celtae, into Gaul, the Gauls had reason to say, after their Druids, that they were descended from him, seeing they looked upon the person that had first fixed them there, and that was some justice to, as their first origin in stock.

Farther, if we inquire into the original of the word Dis, which makes Ditis in the genitive case, we shall easily find it comes from Tit, out of which they have made Titis, softened into Ditis; for all languages, especially the northern ones, the D and the T are very often taken for one another: and so Dis properly signifies Earth, or earthly, in the same manner as
Αδες, usual name given by the Grecians to Pluto, is as much to say Ατης, and Ates, comes from the Celtic word At, which signifies Earth. Thus we find by these etymologies, deduced from the language of the Titans, that the Dis of the Romans, and the Αδης of the
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Greeks, was the same thing. Besides, as the Titans were said to be born of the Earth, or the children of the Earth, the Gauls have still from this acclaim to say, they came from Dis, that they were the sons of Dis was then looked upon to be the God of the Earth. Take it which way you will, it is plain, that the Celtae or Gauls, came of the old Titans, according to Callimachus, who is very capable of making discovery.

What I'm about to say of Mercury, will have a great weight towards a further confirmation of all that has been said concerning the origin of the Celtae. This Prince was own (sic) (known? one?) nephew to Dis, or Pluto, because he was Jupiter and Maia's son, according to the consent of all antiquity. Now amidst all the Wars and Broyls that happened among the Titans, Mercury always stuck close to his father's interest, who did not fail to make due acknowledgments of his fidelity; for if we believe Suidas, Jupiter, before he died gave him the Empire of the West, { margin: Suidas, πηχος } Παραδους την της δυσεως Αρχην,  Cum Occidentis Imperium tradidisset Filio suo Mercurio,  sato, functus est. it's very likely his uncle Dis was dead before Jupiter bestowed such a large donation upon him, which at least contained Italy, Gaul, and Spain, and perhaps Germany too. The Chronicle of Alexandria Foley confirms what Suidas says, and hasn't in express terms, that Mercury, whom he calls by the name of Faunus, reigned five and 30 years in Italy after his fathers Decease. Post jovis

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Piciobitum   ilius ejus Faunus, qui & Mercuria 
Regnum Italia administravit annos qui?q; supra triginta; { margin: Chron. Alexand. p. 105. pr. Ed.}

Εβασιλευσεν ο θιος αυτο Φαυνος, ο χαι, Ερμης τνς Ιταλιας ετη τριαχοντα πεντε  The same Chronicle adds that he was the first at least in the west that found out the art of melting and refining gold, by the help of a crucible or Coppel.

We learn from ancient monuments that Mercury was a cunning, active and eloquent Prince, who was perfect master of all the sciences in use in those days, and above all in that of augury, divinations, and enchantments, with whatever was most accurate and secret and magic: and this is the reason of his being accounted the interpreter of the gods, that is, the auger and diviner of the Titan princes, who consulted him about their designs and enterprises. It was undoubtedly, in order to render himself a perfect master of all these diabolical sciences, that he went thrice into Egypt, as Saint Cyril of Alexandria assures us in his excellent book against Julian the apostate. And it is very likely that it was in that country that he affected to assume the name of Theut {Tuth or Thut} in imitation of the ancient Egyptian Mercury, who had it before him, and made himself so famous amongst the people that dwell about the Nile.

This polite and learned Prince had the address by his eloquence and otherwise somewhat to polish the rough natures, and to moderate the fierceness of those ancient people, that were his subjects. In order to
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which he enacted laws, that tended to the preservation of the peace, and found out arts that were beneficial to the public. But above all things he endeavored by trade and commerce, where he amongst in the inhabitants of these Western parts, who breathe nothing before but war and rapine, to unite them in affection and interest: These were the good actions done by Mercury for the benefit of those barbarians, by which he made his name immortal.

The Titans or Celtae, at this time fixed in Gaul, finding under his Empire and government all those benefits which he had procured them, they took care to preserve his memory, and a due acknowledgment of the same for the space of above 2000 years: for Caesar in his commentaries says, { margin: Caesar com l. 6. } that of the gods there were none the Gauls adored more particularly than Mercury: Deum maxime Mercurium Colunt. He assures us, they had a great many statues of him, which they paid the highest honors; and he adds, that those people took him to be the inventor of arts: Hune omnium Inventorem Artium ferunt.  But above all things they took him to be the protector of merchants and travelers. In a word, all the heathen nations of antiquity took him to be the God of gain, commerce, and merchandise. This is the notion the Gauls, as well as other people, had of him.

{ margin: Lucan l. I. Lactan l. 1.  c. 21. & Liv. l. 26. c. 44 } I find he had two names among them, viz. that of Teutat, which is the same as Teutates, we meet with in Lucan, Lactantius, and al-
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so in Livy, and that of Mercury, by which he was known to the Romans. The name of Teutat is wholly Celtic, for Teut in that language signifies people, and Tat, a father. And as for the word Mercury, that likewise comes from the Celtic, and implies a trading man, for Mercs in Gaulish, from whence came the Latin word Merx, signifies merchandise, and Ur in that language is a man, from whence the word Vir has been derived; insomuch that Merc-Ur, in Latin Mercurius, is word for word a trafficking and trading man. Is there, therefore, now any room to doubt that the Celtae, who had such a veneration for Teutat or Mercury, and to whom they gave both these names, are not descended from those occidental Titans, who submitted to his authority, and lived under his Empire. As for the people of Greece, they called him by the common name of Hermes,
Ερμης, Hermes, which in their language signifies an interpreter, and sometimes diviner; but this word came originally from the Celtic wherein Armes signifies divination, or a foretelling of what shall come to pass. Thus Mercury in his father's lifetime was looked upon to be the prophet and diviner of those Kings, who were afterwards called gods, which honor also in time fell to his share.

As the same Mercury reigned also in Italy they gave him the name of Faunus, which in all appearance signifies a diviner, but particular care must be had, that this first Faunus be not confounded with those of
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the same name, that lived many ages after, and especially with him, who was the father of King Latinus, in whose time Aeneas came into Italy. For our Faunus reigned in that country, when the patriarch Joseph was Prime Minister to King Pharaoh, and died about the time the Israelites when into Egypt. As for the rest, it is not known for certain what the fate of Mercury was, nor whether his life ended at the same time with his reign.

{ Margin: Chron. Alex. & Suidas, υφαυνος } Some there are who say, his own brothers and were so jealous of his power, and prosperity, that they formed a conspiracy against him, and made an attempt upon his life; that this necessitated him to flee with his treasures in the Egypt, where he spent the remainder of his days in peace: but may we not believe he died in Spain, seeing there was a large tomb near new Carthage in the time of Scipio and Hannibal, which they commonly called Mercury, or Mercury Teutat, as we learn from Livy. From hence we may be easily induced to believe he died not in Egypt, but in the West, and those territories subject to his authority. { margin:  Tit. Liv. l. 22. c. 44 }

Chap 15
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Chap. XV.  (15)                Begins on page 100

A Recapitulation of what has been said concerning the Titan Kings.

We may see by what has been already said from the authority of the ancients, for I've invented nothing of my own head, a train or exact succession of kings and princes, who in those obscure ages of the world governed the Celtae, that then were known by no other name than that of Titans. The first of these princes was Acmon, and it was he that at his coming out of Armenia, where they were called Sacae, that conducted them in to Cappadocia, and from thence into Phrygia, having his brother Does for his companion, and it may be his diviner. The second was named Uranus, was a warlike man, and being full of ambition, the lover of arms, he extended his conquests from the lesser Asia, as far as Spain, that is, to the utmost boundaries of Europe and the West.

Saturn, otherwise called Chronos, was the third, and this is the person, who is very justly taken to be the father of the great Jupiter. We find by ancient history that he also performed mighty things, and that he was the first of the Titan princes, who did wear a crown, and assumed the title of King, for the other princes before only had the

quality of being chiefs and leaders of the people, there were under their command.

Jupiter, whose true name was Jau, or rather Jou, must be looked upon to be the fourth, and the most renowned of them all: he was a Prince, the by the greatness of his courage, and series of his victories and successes form the Empire of the Titans, and carried it to the highest pitch of glory that could be: and he had still been greater, and more renowned, had he not been put under the fatal necessity of bearing arms, and making war against his father, who studied to deprive him of his life.

Lastly, his son Teutat, otherwise called Mercury, was the person, who after his uncle Dis, whom we call Pluto, that settled the Titans in the provinces of the West, and more specially in Gaul. He was the Prince that gave laws to these people, who before coveted and breathed nothing but war, that he might thereby soften and their fierce and barbarous natures, and inspire them with some love for peace and tranquility.

If we should reckon Maneus amongst these great man, for he is taken by some historians to be the father of Acmon, and consequently the great-grandfather of Saturn, you'll then have six in a direct line, or if you will, six generations of Titan princes; and these ascend as high as the time of Nahor, the father of Terah, and grandfather of Abraham, and do not terminate till towards the time of the children of Israel went into Egypt, so that their power and dominion, whether in the lesser Asia, Syria, Greece,

Italy, or the rest of Europe, might last about 300 years.

Let us now consider what a change this must make in the manners, customs, policy, religion, and more especially in the language of the first people, that settled in these fine provinces, before the Titans fixed themselves therein. As among other countries they ruled over Phrygia, Greece and Italy, it's impossible but their language, which was Celtic, as may be seen by the proper names of their princes, must needs very much obtain in those countries, together with their Empire; wherein surely there can be nothing strange and new, and which has not been following other nations, when they have made conquests, or fixed any colonies.

Hence we ought not to wonder that the Greek and Latin tongues, are so full of words, which at this day we find in the Celtic language, which has been looked upon as barbarous by them, and from which theirs came, as from their source and origin; the same may be said of the Phrygian tongue, which ought to be considered as the true mother of the Teutonic, which we call the German language, but of these things by and by, I intend in time to give not only certain, but also convincing proofs of the truth of them.

Some perhaps may say, this is true, here is the succession of the Titan princes in a direct line, from father to son, that is strange and singular enough, whether we consider their glorious actions, or the great antiquity ascri-

bed to them, what assurance can we have for all this, that is of the succession of the princes, before spoken of, as well of those great actions, which have heaped on them so much glory, and place them in the number of the heroes of antiquity? Have I not given you the authority of a vast number of authors, both poets and historians, as well as Greeks, as Romans, which I have very carefully cited? To whom I ought to add the famous Sanchoniathon, who is very ancient, and having wrote the history of Phoenicia before the Trojan war : all of them agree about the succession of these princes, and the chief things contained herein; and cut all these authors, that are so ancient, and often times so remote from one another, both in point of time and place, conspired to deceive the world, and to impose upon posterity? An illusion, or rather a cheat of this nature, has no example in all antiquity.

Again, the sum of these authorities maybe questioned, because there are poets among them, and there are other authorities that are not such; and these are the different people, and entire nations, then proceeded from these Titans, of which number are the Cretans, Spartans, Lacedemonians, Eolians, and Acaranans, or Acarnanians, and these only for Greece. As for Italy, you have the Umbrians, were very ancient, and the Sabins, so famous in history. To all which we may add the numerous and warlike nation of the Celtae, settle for so many ages in Gaul. All these

people, and some others I have not named, have had their origin from the Titans and from the Curetes, as may be seen hereafter. Those Titans had those princes and Kings,
before mentioned Chiefs and Leaders: The most ancient, and the most sincere Historians say it, as well as the Poets; and shall we after all this suspect the truth of it? Doth not the scripture it self confirm all these things when it calls these Princes Giants, and the Sons of the Titans, and assures us they governed the Earth, and drove the Kings of the Nations from their Thrones? Imaginary man could not turn princes out of their dominions, and tumble them off their thrones; add to all this, that the Holy Fathers of the church, { Judith, c.16. v. 6. Isai. 14. v. 9. Juxta Haeb. & 70 }, who have unanimously contested for the true religion, and against the false divinity of Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter, allow them to have been potent Kings and real princes, who anciently ruled on the Earth, but at the same time reject them as false gods. We own with them the truth of their glorious actions, and the greatest of their power, as we do also the ridiculous fictions made of them and there are false Divinities.

But if after all that is been offered, anyone is so curious as to know who are those first and most ancient authors, that of wrote and spoke of the Titan Kings, they shall be gratified in this particular. I find, so far as I can penetrate into antiquity, that it was Orpheus among the Greeks, though he was originally a Thracian, and Sanchoniathon, among the Phoenicians, that were the   

first of any that spoke of the Titans, and both these live before the Trojan war, and wrote about 1300 years before our Savior was born. Hesiod and Homer came some ages after them, and afterwards a multitude of poets and historians. But I forgot to say, that long before Homer, and even Orpheus, the Curetes, the descendants of those who lived in the time of Saturn and Jupiter, had taught the Greeks and three seasons, in like manner as the Salians did the Sabins in Italy, all that has been wrote afterwards concerning the race of Titan princes, their genealogy, memorable actions, and the greatness of their Empire and Dominion.

These Curetes were the sages and philosophers of the Titans, and some of them of the blood-royal, so that they were had in great esteem by the people, and had at least as much power as the Magi among the Persians, and might therefore very well know what they said upon this account.

Certainly Plato, who could not but know (Plato in Timaeo) a great deal of these things, had reason to say in speaking of those who he calls gods, with the rest of the ancient heathens, that as to their birth and genealogy, we are to give heed to what some men of old said, mind his words; “Who being born or descended of them, must know best, since they looked upon them to be their fathers and grandfathers.” Priscus itaq viris bac in recredendum, qui Diis ipsi dicebant, geniti, parentes suos optimenoverant :

for continues this philosopher, "its impossible we should not give credit to the children of

the Gods, tho what they affirmed were not made out by sound or probable reasons." These are the notions of Plato hereupon. As for the rest, the children of these pretended deities were no other than the Titans and Curetes, many of which lived in Greece, and especially in Eolia and Acarnanian, as also in Thrace and elsewhere, in the time of the Trojan war. Orpheus learned from their own mouths what he wrote of their birth, succession, wars, and great actions, though the same was intermixed with some fables.

But the Curetes and Titans preserve the remembrance of all these things by verses and poems, made of them by the ancients, in which they could say exactly by heart, as they had no other annals nor monuments in those days. And this indeed was a practice commonly used by all other nations of old. The Druids of Gaul and Britain, who were the true successors of the Curetes, and preservers of their discipline, committed nothing in writing in the time of Caesar, and had no other records, then verses which they took great care learned by heart.

But to return to Orpheus, he not only consulted the Titans in the stings, but in all appearance, was descended from them, because he himself calls them

 Τιτηνης  εμετερων προγονοι πατερων,  Id est, Tatane Partum nostrorum Progenitores.)

But had Orpheus said nothing of it, ancient authors have seen what has been written upon the subject by a famous man in the Isle of Crete, who was Epimenides; I mean, him, who was Salons friend, and who flourished

about the 45th or 46th Olympiad; that is, about 600 years before our Savior was born. This man is called by St. Paul, who yet does not name him, or the prophets of the Cretans,
Ιδιος αυτων προφητης, Proprius ipsorum Propheta. By which he meant one of their diviners. He was so in reality, and of great repute among them, the size which he passed amongst the Cretans For a Curetan, as we find by Diogenes Laertius, who wrote of his life, and likewise by Plutarch.

The first of these, upon the authority of Mironaeus says, that the Cretans were want to call him Curetan,
Κουρητα αυτονεχαλουν Κρητες Curetum ipsum appellabant Cretenses. It seems therefore that he was descended from the ancient Curetes of that Island, and consequently of the Celtic ones, and like them, he wore long hair, contrary to the custom of the Cretans, the size which his body all over had letters and characters imprinted on it, and both these things were common to the Celtae or Gauls, and especially amongst the Druids, which may be esteemed the disciples and imitators of the ancient Curetes. But if Epimenides was not a Curetan by descent, he was at least one of that sect, and knew perfectly well everything that belong to it, in so much, that the author of his life says, he wrote 5000 versus concerning the origin of the Curetes and Corybantes, and of their gods. Diodorus Siculus had seen this work, and made some use of it, as he insinuates in his history. Wherefore it's very plain, that Epimenides being a Curetan, either

by sect or descent, he could not but know who the Titans were, from whom the others were descended.

Chap. 16
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Chap. XVI.  (16)               Begins on Page 108

Of the People of Greece, the Descendents of the Titans.

The laws, sciences, and curious arts amongst the Grecians, in conjunction with their eloquence and politeness, has gained them such a reputation amongst other nations, they cannot forbear admitting them, not for what they are at this day, but what they have been in former ages, and therefore as the notions which have been entertained of them, and that justly two, have been great, and much to their vantage, they'll hardly allow people ever to believe, that they have had their very first beginnings, so far as least we can learn from history, from barbarous nations.

In the meantime the Greek writers must either be charged with being the inventors of lies, or this truth must be owned and received. Let's begin with the Isle of Crete, which was the usual reference of Jupiter, the great prince, over whom you spoke so much, in whom the Greeks under the name of Dis, ΔΙς, have had in such reverence, as to become guilty of superstition and idolatry, and to make him the greatest of their gods.

when Herodotus, who is the ancient just historian now in being, speaks of this island, he ingeniously confesses, that at first it was entirely under the dominion of barbarians,

Την χρητην ειχον ποπαλιαονπασαν Βαρ βαροι, (Latin: id est, Cretum Antiquitus universam Barbari tenuere.) He also gives us plainly enough to understand, that they were masters and possessors of it in the time of Minos, that is, of the first that was known by this name; for there was another Minos, who reigned in Crete but 130 years after him: and in all of this Herodotus is in the right, since the first Minos began to reign in this island Above 1400 years, before our Savior's original from thence.

He was the son of Asterius and Europa, who passed for Phoenicians: but for Asterius he was a true Greek, and the son of Teutame or Tectame. This person quitting Thessaly, when in decree with the body of Eolians and Pelasgians, and manages affairs there so well, he obtained the sovereignty of the island. It was in this manner that the Grecians became masters of Crete, where the Titan race of princes of Jupiter's blood, had rained above 800 years. All these princes called themselves the sons of Jupiter, because they took him for their ancestor; nay, Minos himself, though Greek by dissent, and consequently of another race, yet would call himself his son. And we are sure that these words were ordered to be put upon his tomb, this is the sepulcher of Minos, the son of Jupiter. { margin: Schol. Callim. hymn. in Jovem } Wherefore it is certain from the authority of history, that the Gre-


cians had in a manner nothing to do With Crete before the Time of Tectame, the grandfather of Minos. Before which it was in the hands of strangers and barbarians, according to Herodotus, Cretam Antiquitus universam Barbari tenuere { margin: Herodot. Ib. }

Now if you would know who these barbarians were, Diodorus Siculus, who had read all that ancient historians had writ concerning this famous island, will tell us that those people which were called Eleo Cretes, were reputed to be the first and most ancient inhabitants: Qui Cretam incolunt omnium vetustissimas apud se extitisse asserun Eleo Cretas, Αρχαιοτατος παρ αυτοις γενεχαι τος ονομαζ ομενος Ετεοχρητας. They were also said to be aborigines, i.e. Born in the country, and not come from anywhere else, but that is a mistake, for they came from Peloponnesus, for it was from that part of Greece at the first inhabitants of Crete had their origin. Next to the Eleo-Cretes, the ancient people of this island were the Dactylt Idet, who were thus called from Mount Ida, where they fixed, which made the same Diodorus say, Primi, ergo, quorum sane memoria apud nos venit, Cretae Incolae, Idei dactyli, Ιδαιος Δαχτελος, fuere, ad montem Idam habitantes.

Next to these Diodorus places the Curetes as the most ancient inhabitants, Post Idaeos Dactylos, Curetas novem extitisse, tradunt Historiae,

Ιστοροσι γενεχαι χορητας εννεα. He also adds concerning the Curetes, that some would have them to be born of the earth, Esse terrigenas, γηγενεις; and others said


that they were the descendents of the Daetyli; Idaei, ab Dactylis esse oriendos;  and further, that these Curetes dwelt in the mountains, woods, and rough and inaccessible places, and that they lay in the hollows of valleys, and the like places of shelter and retirement, because they had no houses in those times, to which our author also adds that the Cretans made those people who were called Titans, to be contemporary with the Curetes. Memorant Cretenses, quo tempore Curetes vivebant, Titanes quoq; Extitisse.

Γενεχαι χατα την Κουρητωνηλιχιαν τος χαλομενος Τιτανας. That these Titans lived about the city of Gnossus (Knossos), and that they still showed them the ruins of the houses where Rea, the wife of Saturn, lived. Lastly, this historian assures us, that it was a tradition among the Cretans, that most of the gods, that is, of those, who by the famous actions performed by them, have been put into the number of the gods, and have acquired an immortal name, were born in that island; Plerosq; deos,  Τωνχεων τος πλειςος,  Apud se natos perhibent. 

By which Gods he meant Saturn, Jupiter, Teutat or Mercury, and the like, who were of the Titan race. This is a summary account of all that the ancient historians have written about Crete, in respect to the first inhabitants of that island, of which, in the main, they have said nothing but what was true, at least somewhat near the truth: but they have handled them very confusedly, and often times with doubt and uncertainty.


It's certain the Eleo-Cretes were the first inhabitants of this famous and fine island, which words signify the true Cretans, who were the first of any that peopled the island. But they came originally from Greece, and that part of it called Peloponnesus: the other inhabitants of Crete, mentioned by Diodorus,

and styled Daetyli Idaei and Curetes, were really barbarians and strangers, but not a different people from the Titans, saving that the Daetyli Idaei and the Curetes were their diviners, priests and sacrificers, who, like the Druids, their successors, retired into the thickest woods, and most rugged mountains, where they had caves and other recesses to live in.

It's easy to see from what has been said by me after Diodorus, that the Titans were masters of Crete from the first ages of antiquity, and that the princes of this nation rained there under the name of gods, and that the same was done by their posterity for 800 years together, that is, to the time of Tectame, or his grandson Minos. These Titans, who were before called Sacae, were not originally Grecians, because they came from the provinces of operation, towards Media and Bactriana, so that according to the language of the Greeks, they were strangers and barbarians; and so Herodotus had reason to say, that the Isle of Crete from the very beginning was subject to barbarians. It was not only under their dominion, but continued so for many ages under a long succession of princes and Kings, all dissented from Jupiter, and the


ancient Titan race. Is there now therefore any cause to wonder that the Cretan language was so singular and different from that of the other Grecians, for besides it's been rough, heavy, and unpolished, it must needs be full of words, received from these ancient barbarians, who were so long in possession of the island. As therefore the language of the Titans and Curetes, could be no other than the Celtic, I am not surprised to find that the Cretans retained many of the words, which are even to this day found in the language of the Celtae, since called Gauls.

Chap. 17        (To note, this chapter is labled as 16 as well, in the printed document but it was a print setting error and is 17)
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Chap. XVII.  (17)  continues on pg 113

That the Spartans or Lacedemonians came from the Celtae.

The origin of those people, who have been most famous for their great actions, and most renowned in history, is often times the most obscure and uncertain. This in some measure may be said of those who have been so very well known in the world by the name of Spartans, or rather Lacedemonians. It's known these people have lived in the earliest of time, in the most southern part of the Peloponnesus, between the Argians, Arcadian's, and Messenians, and as their territories lay to the south, bordering upon the sea we may say, that of all the inhabitants or nations of Greece,


they were the nearest to the Isle of Crete, their habitations have been always fixed and certain, for they never changed their country. But we must not say the same concerning their origin. I cannot afford, considering how obscure or an uncertain the same is, that they were not originally Grecians, I should wrong them to do the contrary, they came from Javan or Jaon, who, according to Scripture, was the father of the Greeks, because they descended from his son Elisa, who in ancient times had for his Share that part of the country, since known by the name of Peloponnesus. It's therefore without contest, that they were originally Grecians, though as I have observed before, they were some ages after, viz, about the latter days of Terah, the father of Abraham, oppressed by barbarous nations; who having seized Phrygia, and the neighboring countries, quickly made themselves masters of all Greece, and at the same time of the Isle of Cyprus.

By these barbarians that came from Phrygia, I mean no other than the Titans, who under Uranus, the father of Saturn, and the grandfather Jupiter, having invaded Greece, carried their conquests as far as Gaul and Spain. These Titans having them by their valor and numbers seized on Greece. It's not to be doubted that they overran Peloponnesus, which is the finest and richest part of it, and consequently must make themselves a master of Laconia, as well as all the other provinces, and all that I said, when speaking of Saturn and Jupiter,


is a manifest proof of it. And every year we are to observe, that as there were that time none, or but very few towns in Greece, and besides Lycosura, in Arcadia, I find them so ancient, as these barbarous, but victorious people, ranged up and down the woods and forests, or lived in caves, and the hollows of mountains and sea rocks.

They were dispersed up and down in such a manner in Laconia, for so was that country then called, that those barbarians had the name of Spartans, or dispersed given them. But when I say this of these people, I do not take upon me to affirm that they were the only people that went by this name: I believe on the contrary that the same was also given to the first inhabitants of this country, but as they were dispersed and intermixed with the other, they were also comprehended under the same name, without any distinction or difference, at least I can find nothing among the ancients that otherwise inform me.

Thus, as near as may be, stood things in Laconia, and the beginning of Saturn's reign, that is, while Abraham was in the land of Canaan, and sometime after the birth of Isaac. If all I have said in relation to the actions of this first came of the Titans, and those of his son Jupiter, are not enough to convince people, that they and their subjects were absolute masters of Peloponnesus, here comes something more to be offered, which must remove all manner of doubt of it. You must know then that the Titan princes, with the Curetes, were


the first founders of those famous sports, called the Olympic Games. I know many will be presently ready to encounter what I say in this particular, as impertinent and ridiculous. What, say they, musts the Olympic Games, those famous sports, peculiar only to the Greeks, there were invented entirely for their pleasure in glory, and celebrated with so much care and pomp, owe their institution to the Titans, and unknown and barbarous people, from whom the Celtae { also Celti or Celty } or Gauls are said to be descended? It's what can never be believed, and cannot enter into our thoughts. But why, I pray, may it not be believed? Why may not this entering the men's thoughts, provided we bring it attested by the most learned Greeks, and take notice of by the most ancient authorities amongst them?

If they had been the Titans or Celtae, that had pretended to these things, they might've been suspected in the matter, but they are Grecians themselves that say and write them, in order to be transmitted to posterity: we therefore, in not believing them, do them an injury, and appear to be more jealous of their glory, than they have been themselves. But Pausanias, { margin: Paus. l. 5. qui est. E. liacor I. } who with much care and exactness has wrote the most memorable things relating to Greece, when he comes the speak of the Olympic Games, says expressly, that the people of Elis, who best knew the antiquity of them, affirming that the Dactyli Idaet, or otherwise called Curetes, and were entrusted it with the education of Jupiter, came in the reign of


Saturn from Crete into the country of Elis, that there were five brothers of them, whom the eldest, named Hercules, first proposed the game of running to them, and that he won should be crowned with wild olive. Pausanias intermixes many other things with the account he gives us, which I shall pass over in silence. After which he adds, the first inventor then of these Olympic Games was Hercules Idaus, according to the Revelation given by the Eleans.

 “Auctor igitur istorum Ludorum Hercules Idaus Celebratur.” Soon after wrestling was added to that of running, and the same author assures us from the authority of history, that Jupiter in these public games had wrestled with his father Saturn, and that the Curetes were the first that ran at them. In ludis Olympicis Jovem cum Saturno luctatum & Curetas primo cursu certasse, Memoriae Proditum est. He says at last, { Margin: Paus. l. 8. qui est de Arcadicorum. } that though the institution of these games was so very ancient and obscure, as to mount up to the first ages of antiquity, he would not however pretend to call the same into question. But what makes me believe Dactyli Idaet, or the Curetes, were the first Institutors of these games, is, that there was in the famous and magnificent temple of Jupiter Olympius, from which these games were denominated, because it was a place where they were celebrated, besides those altars consecrated to the gods, one dedicated to the Curetes, that this, to Hercules Idaeus and his four brothers. They { Margin: Idem. l. }

were therefore the Curetes or Titans, and especially their Hercules, who were really the first institutors of these games, which became afterwords so famous; that is the more likely, because of the Celtae, their descendents, use even to this day, no exercises more commonly than running and wrestling. But if the testimony of Pausanias is not sufficient for the confirming of this truth, that of Diodorus Siculus may be added thereunto; who speaking of the Dactyli Idaet, { margin: Diodor. Hist. l. 5. p. 335. } says that one of them, named Hercules, which made himself famous by his great actions, had instituted the Olympic Games, and that posterity, being mistaken by reason of the Sameness of the name, had attributed it to another Hercules, the son of Alcmene, who lived long after him.

These Dactyli Idaet, who, according to Pausanias, were also called Curetes, were of the race of the Titans, Quia alio nomine Curetes appellati sunt,  and the Titans, had entirely seized the Peloponnesus, as well as the rest of Greece, and if they had not been absolute masters of the country, how could they have instituted the Olympic Games? Having therefore invaded this fine province they possess themselves of Laconia, and having afterwords ranged up and down everywhere, they had the aforementioned name of Spartans, or dispersed. When Rhea, the wife of Saturn, was delivered of Jupiter in Arcadia, upon Mount Lycaeus, near the city of Lycosura, she ordered the Curetes and Spartans to take care of him, and forthwith to


carry him into the Isle of Crete. They complied with the orders of that princess, and haven't transported the child thither, bread him up on Mount Scylleta, as a place of security. Ενθαφασι τος Κουρητας αποθεσθαι μετα Των Σπαρτιαταν τον Δια, Ibi autem Curetas cum Spartianis, Jovem deposuisse, They had Spartans therefore at that time there. It's manifest they had associated themselves with the Curetes, and of all of them were under the dominion of Saturn, and his wife Rhea. They must be there for Titans, released the people that had intermixed with them, that now bore the name of Spartans.

Again, when Saturn many years after this was defeated by his own son, and not only driven out of Crete, but also out of all Greece, the Spartans would not forsake their King and Lord; they followed his fortune, at least many of them did so, to Italy, and there found a safe retreat for him. This we have from Julius Firmicus, { margin: Jul. Firmic. l. de Error Prof. Rel. } who speaking of the flight of Saturn, says, Hic Creta fugiens in Italia a Spartanis absconditur. We shall see by and by that Firmicus was not mistaken this matter, and that from thence forwards the Spartans of Peloponnesus had always great affinity for the people of Italy, and especially with the Sabins and Umbrians.

Those Spartans, which were dispersed up-and-down Laconia, and intermixed with the Grecians, or the ancient inhabitants, in the process of time, having had a meeting together, agreed to build a city, that so they


might coalesce into a body for their better security. The place they called Sparta, according to the name they themselves bore, and not according to that of one Spartus, the son of Amyclantes, and the grandson of Leleges, as the Greeks would have it. The confirming of this we have the authority of { Margin: Steph. V. Λαχεδαιμων } Stephen of Byzantium, who had consulted the ancient authors about it. He says the city of Lacedemon was the most famous of any in Peloponesus.  Earum que in Peloponeso sunt Clarissima:  Its first name was Sparta, Sparta:  η Σπαρτη προτερον,  Sparta prius appellabatur vel a Sparto Amyclantis filio, vel quod Leleges, Λελεγες, qui omnium primi eam urbam incoluere, antea Sparsi, Διασπαμενοι in eundem locum Convenerint, atq; unam fecerint habitationem. this is what Stephen says, and the same is confirmed by the learned Eustathius in his commentaries upon the second book of Homer's Iliads, { margin: Eustat. Comment. in l. 2. Iliad } they were the Spartans then, or otherwise called Leleges, that first founded the city, about 200 years before Jupiter's death, and some years after the children of Israel went into Egypt, according to Eusebius in his Chronicle. { margin: Eus. Chron. p. 68 in Lat. }.

Here we are to take notice that the Spartans, called Σπαρτιαται, (Spartiatae) by the Grecians, bore also the name of Leleges. But besides these two very ancient names, we find they had also that of Laconians, in Greek Λαχωνες, Lacones, from which time they made that of Lacedemonians, Λαχεδαιμονες and Λαχεδαιμονιοι id est. Lacedaemones sive Lacedaemonii;

and it is manifest from ancient history how well they were known by this last name in the world, they have obtained Immortal honor by their great and glorious actions.

Indeed it is diverting enough to see the pains the Greeks take to find out the origin of these three last names: I mean those of Leleges, Laconians, and Lacedemonians: but not to dwell upon what they say, which in my opinion is little to the purpose, I'm almost confident, that notwithstanding the difference between them, that they all signify the same thing, and in our language are tantamount to cryers/criers, clamourers or Bawlers, in Latin - Clamosi or Vociferantes;

And they were called thus, because whether they were in war, or a hunting which in time of peace was a common and frequent exercise with them, or lastly, when they invoke their deities, for they had a great number of diviners, enchanters, and magicians amongst them, they cried out, or made a brawling in the planes, woods and mountains. If what I now say should be mistrusted, I am ready to produce such proofs for it, as will give more satisfaction than all the trifles the Greeks would obtrude upon us, and by the way let me say this, that the Fauni did almost the same thing amongst the Latins in Italy, as the Lacedemonians did amongst the ancient Greeks of Peloponnesus. Having said so much concerning the Spartans or Lacedemonians , not to mention the other two names, it's not to be doubted but these people, who lived so early


under the government of Saturn and Jupiter, intermixed, and were almost confounded with the Titans; and as the Celtae, who afterwards settled in Gaul, were descended from these Titans, it's no strange thing that the Spartans should have such laws, manners and customs as the Celtae had; for I shall say nothing at present of the languages of these two people, which in an infinite number of words are like one another. But because people may think I talk at random, if I do not say something more particularly upon this head, I shall show in how many things the Lacedemonians and Titans agree and resemble one another. Those who have a relish of such matters, and are curious in antiquity, can be pleased with nothing more than to know that these two people were formally intermixed, and came at least in part from the same stock in origin.

Chap. 18
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Chap. XVIII.  (18)

Of the Conformity there is between the Spartans and Titans.

122 continues

In the first place the Lacedemonians wore their hair long, dangling down upon their shoulders, and as the contrary to the custom of the Athenians and other Grecians, who wore then short; and has Plato in a way of raillery calls them Spartiochaites, that is, long-haired Spartans. Herein they
imitated the Titans and Curetes, who afterwards haven't followed in this custom by the Gauls, who were called Comati or Hairy.

In the next place the true Greeks went bare-headed, and in time of need covered themselves with the lappet of their robe or vest; but the Lacedemonians wore a small cap, or rather a round bonnet, like half an egg shell. The Celtae did the same of old, and their descendents still continue it, especially in some parts of Bretagne.

The Lacedemonians loved short Cloathes, the Celtae did the same, and that by reason of their being accustomed to the exercises of running, hunting, and to war, which were common to both nations: But tis farther to be noted, that the Lacedemonians had scarlet or purple weltes or Bordures upon their cloaths, which they called jopater, because that in all appearance they had been in vogue among the Titans, from the days of Jupiter: it's certain the Gauls had the like upon their coats or jackets, both in time of peace and war, as may be seen by the authority of several ancient authors.

Let us now come to things relating to war, everybody knows that the Spartans had a very strong inclination to arms and warlike exploits, and so they have indeed thereby acquired, so much glory as will never perish as long as the world indoors. We may also boldly say, what was the greatest delight of the Gauls, and that it was by arms they performed so many


great actions, which made them formidable to the Romans, who were feared, and even dreaded by all the world. The arms of the Lacedemonians were a headpiece, shield, lance or javelin. To these they added a little short sword, very like unto a bagonet; in all which they did not vary from the Titans and Celtae, who were well acquainted with these sorts of arms.

That which comes next is very remarkable; when the Spartans went to give battle, their poets Marched before them, and sung songs to encourage them to go on. The bards, which were the poets of the Gauls, and, as it were, their Curetes, did the same thing, when they were ready to fight.

If by misfortunes Spartans happened to be beaten, their maxim was rather to die with their arms in their hands, than to be made prisoners by the enemy; and this was the usual practice of the Gauls.

It was a peculiar custom the Lacedemonians had, not to fight till after full moon, at least unless they were forced to it; and this they had from very ancient times, which they must have received from the Titans and Curetes, who had great regard to the full moon.

They made versus, and sung the praises of great men, who had signalized themselves by some glorious actions in war: this was the exact practice of the Celtae, and the main business of their poets, which were called bards, as they were named Schaldres by the northern nations.

The Spartans capered, and with their arms on danced the Pyrrhick dance, it's very plain that they learned this military practice from the Curetes, who invented it, and hence it was that the Latins gave these people the name of Salians, because they capered and dance like the Curetes.

In ancient times the Lacedemonians made no other promulgation of their laws than by singing them, at least those which related to war; and hence it was that laws were by the Greeks called Νομοι, Nomes, that is, songs, Ασματα, the Celtae did the same thing, as Aristotle observed somewhere in his works.

The Lacedemonians were not given to learning, no more worthy ancient Celtae; both the one and the other of them were satisfied with getting their songs or verses by heart, which serve for their records, those in a manner being all they had.

When they would have a thing made known her public, do it right upon the long and polished stick, like a cylinder, which they called Scytale; and this was in use among the Celtae and other northern nations.

As for the food of the Spartans, wherein they were very abstemious, I find boiled pork to be their ordinary dish, and it's even at this day the great dish of the descendents of the Celtae, who are preserved most of their ancient customs; and let me add by the way, the Spartans called a swine, Sic, in Greek Σιχα, and the Celtae or their posterity, even now when they hunt
that animal, use no other word than Sic.

The Spartans were great lovers of pottage, made of millet, and it is still in thing much used by the descendents of the Celtae, and here it is proper to be observed that the Spartans called Millet, Ελυμος, Elymus, which word came from Lym, the Celtic name of it.

We are farther to note, that the Lacedemonians, that they might make their children hardy, robust and hail, or want to watch them in cold springs of water, and we read that Jupiter was served so, when newborn: the ancient Celtae use the same practice in respect to their own children.

Lastly, for I should never gone through all the Lacedemonians made a matter of religion from time to time to offer a man in sacrifice to their God Mars, in which the Celtae did not differ from them, saving that they glorified to offer many human sacrifices.

These in my mind are very singular and remarkable things, upon which should we read the history of the Athenians and other Grecians, we should find their manners, customs, and other usages, not like under those of the Lacedemonians, but on the contrary, they were, and are still at least in part used by the posterity of the ancient
Gauls. What is it then that we can infer from all this, saving that the Celtae and the Lacedemonians have their origin from the same people, who were the ancient Titans? And hence also it is that we find several words in the Laconic tongue, or rather in the remains of it, which are plainly taken from the Celtic language, which still subsists in some parts of France, and in Wales, notwithstanding the revolutions of many ages of the world. Without the help of this language we do not know how to explain the greatest part of the different names, given by the ancient Laconians to their gods and goddesses, and more particularly to Apollo and Diana, but with it, it will be found no hard matter, at least in respect to many of them.

These are the manifest, and even convincing proofs, that the first Spartans or Lacedemonians, who were true Greeks by descent, have, in process of time, been intermixed and confounded with the Titans and Curetes, from whom came afterwards the people, called Celtae or Gauls, but the Cretans and Lacedemonians were not the only people of Greece, that came from the Curetes. We find my ancient history that the Etolians and Acarnanans, or Acarnanians, were descended from them: only read but Strabo upon this occasion, you'll soon be convinced I have advanced herein nothing but what is consonant to truth. But enough of the people of Greece, let us come now to those of Italy.

Chap. 19
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Chap. XIX.  (19)

That the Umbrians were by the Ancients taken to be Celtae or Gauls.

Those who wrote of the people of Italy, and said anything concerning the antiquity of them, seemed to put the Umbrians in the number of those who first possessed this part of Europe; though there are others who hold the contrary: but as by reason of the obscurity of those past ages of the world, we can have no distinct knowledge of that, little can be set up on this head; of which if one should ask my opinion, I should give it in favor of the Ausones or Ausonians. But be this as it will, it's certain that the settlement of the Umbrians in Italy, is also remote and ancient standing, that the beginning thereof cannot be discovered. Let us however, if possible, penetrate into this thick cloud, and see if by any probable conjectures we can find what ancient history was a stranger to, or at least has hid from our view.

In treating before of Uranus, father Saturn, and the grandfather of Jupiter, I showed not from vain imaginations, but upon the authority of ancient records that he carried his arms from the regions of the lesser Asia, where he dwelt at his father's death, and conquered the countries
of Europe even to the utmost bounds of them. And could he go so far without entering into Italy, and annexing that rich and pleasant country to all his other conquests? All this could not be done, without sending new colonies thither, as well as to manure the ground as to keep the ancient inhabitants under subjection. Have we not therefore room to believe that Uranus sent Titans thither, who possessed all the country at joining to the Tiber and the Appenine Hills, which has since had the name of Umbria; and if Uranus did not send this colony into Italy, it must've been done in the time of Saturn. For how could he in that war be had with his son, after his the feet seek refuge in a country, where he did not know, or had not some confidence in the people, and who perhaps owed him their settlement. There must therefore have been Titans settled there either in his or his father's reign; and he must needs have great confidence in them, that he should retire among them for his security and protection from the violences his son would've offered to him.

We learn from an ancient author, that when Saturn took refuge in this part of Italy, he was conveyed thither by the Spartans of Peloponnesus: "Saturnus ex Cretafugiens, in Italia a Spartanis absconditur," There is reason to believe that the Spartans, who, as I said before, were also called Laconians, intermixed with the Umbrians, and from thence forward made but one people: for we find in the ancient glossaries,
that a Laconian and an Umbrian is the same thing. 
Λαχων, Laco, Umber  and enhances perhaps that the Sabine, who came from the Umbrians, have been always looked up on to be a colony of Spartans or Lacedemonians. As we shall see hereafter. It's therefore likely from what I have said, that several of the Titans, in the region of Uranus, or at furthest in that of Saturn, staying and  fixing themselves in this part of Italy, which is adjacent to the Tiber and the Appennine, were afterwards called Umbrians. If things were so, as they seem to be likely, the settlement of the Titans in Italy was made about the time of the calling of Abraham, that is, when he left Chaldea to go and dwell in the land of Canaan.

These things being premised, it is no matter of astonishment to find ancient authors, who are treated of Umbria, or rather the Umbrians, its inhabitants, anonymously agreed that they were a very ancient nation. Umbri, says Florus, "antiquissimus Italiae Populus." { Margin: Flor. l. 1. c. 17.} Pliny confirms the same thing, { margin: Plin. l. 3. c. 14. } viz. that the Umbrians were looked upon to be the oldest people of Italy. Umbrorum Gens antiquissima Italia Existimatur This is so manifested Dionysias Hallicarnasseus assures us, { margin: Dionys. Hal. l. 1.}that when the Pelasgi came from Greece and Italy, sometime after the deluge of Deucaleon, that is about 1500 years before our saviors nativity, the Umbrians were then possessed of a great part of Italy: for, as he, it was a very great and very ancient nation. "Habitabant ture Umbri, & alios multos Italiae Agros, eratq, ea
Gens multum antiqua & ampla. This nation had anciently extended itself so far, that it possessed about a third of Italy, and among the rest all Umbria and Tuscany:  { Margin: Plin Hist. Nat. l. 3. c. 14.> And Pliny observes that when the Hetrurians came into Italy, they made war against them a long time, and took and destroyed above 300 of their cities. "Trecenta eorum oppida Thusci debellasse reperiuntur."

This therefore was a nation not only for very ancient, "Gens antiquissima Italiae," but also very potent and extensive, that'll fix itself in the middle of Italy about 1500 years before Romans was built. Should I say what I believe, that it was a Celtic or Gaulish nation, I might be laughed for my painless as the person that took delight in inventing novelties, not to say unheard of things. But if I shall bring ancient authors, and such, whose integrity is not called in question, to avert it, I hope there'll be no room left to reproach me for it. When { margin: Solin. c. 8.} Solinus speaks of the Umbrians, he says upon the credit of Bocchus, the historian, that the Umbrians came of the ancient race of the Gauls.  Bocchus absolvit, Gallorum Veterum propaginem Umbros esse:  If it should be objected that Solinus is mistaken therein, as well as in many other things, let us see what { margin: Serv. l. II. } Servius has written upon this occasion in his excellent commentaries upon the 12th book of the Eneids, reconfirms what Solinus says in these words; Sane Umbros Gallorum veterum proaginem esse, Marcus Antonius Refert.

All of which is supposed by the authority of Isidore, Bishop of Seville,
who speaking of the Umbrians and his Origines, says in the ninth book, the Umbrians are nation of Italy, but descendent of the ancient Gauls. "Umbri, Italiae Gens est,sed Gallorum veterum propago."

To all these authors let us add the scholiast (scholar) of Lycophron, who does not differ much in opinion from them, but says, that the Umbrians are a fort of Gauls, Ομβροι γεωος Γαλατων Umbri Gallorum Genus. This Greek scholar, who was the learned Tzetzes, { Tzetzes, Shol. p. 109. } seems to have spoken more correctly than the Roman authors; for it certain the Umbrians were not properly descended of the Gauls, that is, of that race of people, that a long time after settled in Gaul; seeing the other was in Italy, before these had possessed themselves of the Western provinces of Europe.

The Umbrians therefore were a nation like unto the Celts or Gauls, that came from the same stock and origin; to whit, from the Titans, who had the same customs and language. This is what the Roman authors mean, when they write the Umbrians were of the Gaulish race, "Gallorum verterum propaginem esse." { Margin: Servius, Ib.}

Chap. 20
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Chap. XX.  (20)

That the Sabins (also Sabines) were the Descendents of the Umbrians and Spartans.

hose who are anything acquainted with antiquity, know very well that the Sabins had once a great name in Italy, both upon the account of their illustrious actions, which made them famous, and of the different people that came from them: my design here is not to treat of these their descendents, that being nothing to our purpose: I shall only say that the learned Cluverius who is wrote so well concerning the ancient people of Italy, is mistaken in some places, and more particularly, when he says, that the Sabins came from the Opiqui, whom he pretends to be the same as the Ausones or Ausonians, upon which he has made two false remarks.

For in the first place the Sabins were not descended from the Osci which name the Greeks have softened into that of Opiqui, then these Osci or Opiqui, were very different people from the Ausones. I shall say thus much by the way, that { Margin: AElian var. hist. l. 9. c. 16. } has hit it right, in assuring us from diverse histories, that the Ausones were the first inhabitants of Italy, and that they were the true Indigenes.

Την Ιταλιαν ωχησαν Πρωτος Αυσονες, αυτοχθονες,    Italiam omnium primi Inhabitarunt


Au-sones, Indigenae.
It's true, they were the first inhabitants of this rich country, but not there from the very beginning of the first stages, for they came originally from that part of Greece, since called Peloponnesus. Being there for Grecians by descent, their ancient language was Dorick, or rather Eolick which was in a manner that of the Aborigines.

I am confident that these Ausones were at least in part that the true ancestors of those same aborigines, from whom, we know, the Latins, and after them the Romans were descended, who by their glorious actions, wise management, obtained at last the the empire of the world. As said in part, for the aborigines were very early intermixed with the Greeks, and the Celtae or Titans, perhaps also with some other people, but yet in such sort, that the Ausones were the first with whom the others afterwards coalesced.

There are proofs of this, that are very convincing to me, but that which is taken from the ancient language of the aborigines, or first Latins, is the best and most efficacious. It's certain that this first language, which is called Prisca by Isidore, that signifies old or ancient, and was in use amongst those ancient people in the time of Saturn and Janus, that, says this father, Qua vetustissimi Italiae Sub Jano & Saturno sunt usi;  it's certain, I say, that this first language of the aborigines was entirely Eolick and Celtic as we shall see by-and-by.
But to return to the Sabins; there is so little truth in then being the offspring of Osci or Opiqui, that there are almost certain proofs of their being descended of the Umbrians; Zenodotus of Tzezene, as he is quoted by Dionysius Hallicarnesseus, in his Second Book of Roman Antiquities, and who had anciently wrote the history of the Umbrians, says distinctly enough that the Sabins came from them. For he shows us that the Umbrians, whom he calls "Indigines," Αυθιγενεις, who dwelt in those infant times of the world about Rieti, that being driven from thence by the Pelasgians, they went to fix a little lower towards the Tyber and the Nar; and that having in this manner changed habitation, they also changed name, being now called Sabins, instead of Umbrians, his words are these; Matatoq; cum Sedibas Nomine, Σαβινοςεξ Ομβριχων Sabino pro umbris Suisse appelatos.

But too, Zenodotus does not expressly say, that the Sabins came from the Umbrians, yet there is a reason to believe it, seeing the Umbrians from all antiquity were possessed of the country, which afterwards had the name of Sabine. Thus the Sabins, properly speaking were but part of those Umbrians, who dwelt between the Nar and the Teverton, and especially toward Rieti, and the Lake Velino. Let us add to this, that the language of the Sabins was almost the same as that of the Umbrians, and that both the one and the other were like the Celtick. The Sabins, therefore, did not come from the Osci or Opiqui, as Cluverius imagines.
But seeing the language of these 2 people were like one another, the reason is, because both of them came from the same stock. I mean, from the Titans, the Osci, we may suppose immediately, that the Sabrins, by means of the Umbrians, from whom they were descended. Be it as it will, the language of these two ancient people was Celtic, as appears by those words, that are still in being.

{ margin: Sil. Ital. l. 8. c. 19. deCiv. Dei. } Now to satisfy the curiosity of any that has a mind to know from whence the name of Sabin's came, I answer, from Sabus, or as others call him Sabinus, their chief for leader. This Sabus was the son of Sancus or Sargus,who having been a famous hero among the Sabins, was by then put into the number of the gods; which made St. Augustine say, Sabinietiam Regem suum primum Sangum, sive ut aliqui appellant Sancum, retulerunt in deos.  { margin: Lac. l. 1. c. 15. Tit. Liv. l. 8. } Lactantius, speaking of these people, and the adoration they anciently paid to this imaginary deity, had said before him, Sabini Sancum Coluerunt.  This is he that Livy calls Semo-Sangus; but when he came to be a numeration amongst the gods, or rather demigods, they readily gave him the name of Sanctus. Hence came the ancient inscriptions, Sango Sancto Semoni Deo Fidio Sacrum, &c. and this other, Semipatri Sanco, for after his deification they gave him the name of Semopater or Semipater in their invocations and public prayers, as they gave to Jou, that of Jou-Pater, which in time was softened to Jupiter.
In short, that sure name of this hero, who seems to have been a great diviner, was Sancus, which is the same as Picus of the Latins, which came from the bird we call woodpecker (Pic) which the Celtae also made use of in their auguries and divinations: For as Picus came from the Celtic Picat or Picquat, so Sancus did from Sanca, which amongst the Celtae or Bretons, signifies even at this day, to prick or pack. Of Sanca the Umbrians, or Sabins, made Sancus, and as the Latins, as well as other people, easily turned the C into G, they made Sancus of it. This is he whom the Sabins have always looked upon to be their father and founder, and Silius Italicus says, that these people celebrated his praises, and consider him as the founder of their nation, Sancum vose Canebant, Auctorum Gentvs.  And this has given cause to believe, he was the person that separated the Sabins from the Umbrians, and made them a distinct people, to whom he gave peculiar laws and customs.

Perhaps he might also be the Prince who founded the city of Cures, which was afterwards the capital of the Sabins. Now if all this came to pass, when they were given out of the territory of Rieti, "ex Agro Reatino," by the Pelasgians according to Zenodotus, as cited by Dionysius Hallicarnasseus, we may suppose it was done about the time that Deucalion reigned in Greece, or some years after the deluge, that happened under that prince, for the Pelasgians, according to some ancient authors, came then from Greece
into Italy, and drove the Umbrians out of the city of Rieti, who thereupon retired towards the bank of the Tiber, and there built the city of Cures, under conduct and direction of Sancus, aforementioned, who was succeeded by his son Sabus, as prince of this new people, that came from the Umbrians; and as he followed the example of his father in point of wisdom and good management, they did, in honor of him, take the name of Sabins.

Insomuch, that by degrees this new people formed in time a nation, quite different and distinct from that of the Umbrians. This change, as far as we can penetrate into the dark recesses of antiquity, happened about 1500 years before our saviors nativity, and consequently the settlement of the Sabins proceeded that of Rome about 750 years.

Me thinks I have produced very good reasons, as well as authorities, for the Sabins being descended from the Umbrians, who were a sort of Celtae or Gauls. but that is no bar to their having received colonies of Lacedemonians amongst them. It is intimated by Justin in his 10th book, that the Sabins ahd colonies from the Lacedemonians, but this other authors speak of plainly enough, and that upon the authority of their own histories. Hence it is that Dionysius Hallicarnasseus in his Roman Antiquities writes, that he had found by the ancient records of the Sabins, that the Lacedemonians has sent the colony amongst them, in the time that the famous Licurgus, the
Guardian of his nephew Eunomus, gave laws to the Spartans; Lacedemonios istos, { margin: Dionys. l. 2. } speaking of the country of the Sabins, Coloniam deduxisse, quo tempore Lycurgus Eunomi ex fratro nopotis tutor, Spartae leges dabat.;  it cannot be known who the conductor or leader of this colony should be, but if the Spartans sent it about the time that Lycurgus enacted his laws, that must have happened about 880 years before our Savior was born, and a 130 years before the building of Rome.

This is confirmed by the authority of Plutarch, who in the life of Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome, says that the Prince intermixed many of the Lacedemonians customs, with those of the Romans, because he had conferred about it with one Pythagoras,  a native of Sparta. Besides, Numa was born in the country of the Sabins, who owned themselves to be a colony of the Lacedemonians: Sabini vero dicunt se Colonos esse Lacedmoniorum;

Λαχεδαιμονιων αποιχος γεγονεναι. they not only said they were colony of that famous people of Greece, but there were ancient authors, { margin: Plut. in vit. Numae } their firms are being descended from them, and more particularly, Servious in his commentaries in these words:  Sabini a Lacedemoniis originem ducunt, ut Higynus ait, de origine Urbium Italicorum; And he confirms it in the same place by the authority of { margin: Serv. l. 8. } Cato and Gellius:  Cato autem & Gellius, a Sabo Lacedaemonio Trahere eos Originem reserunt.

It's true, the Sabins had their origin from the Lacedemonians, but not directly, as may be seen by ancient authors but indirectly, as they came from the Umbrians, who in the time of Saturn descended from the Spartans, as already observed: and by this way it's easy to reconcile any seeming differences that occur between the historian, and that tree of the Sabins. I shall say nothing here of those people that came from this nation, such as the Picentes,  Marsi Hernici and the like, that peopled the lower Italy, but we cannot forget the Samnites, who were the famous of old, had been the founders of other people, all which migrations or colonies rendered the Sabin name very illustrious. However, they became much more so, by their mixing and incorporating with the Romans in the time of Tatius and Romulus. I shall not dwell upon this, for besides that there is no necessity for it, ancient historians, and especially the Romans, do not deny or controvert it.

End Book 1         containing 20 chapters.

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