Created  Apr. 2, 2013                   updated   April 26,  2018                                           Truth1's Related Info site

Paul Yves Pezron -- The Antiquities of Nations;

more particularly of the Celtae or Gauls, taken to be originally the same people as our ancient Britains.

Sub-headings:        This is Part 2 of 2, comprising The Antiquities of Nations, by Paul Pezron.

BOOK II.  (2)

Chap. I.         (1)          The Origin of the Celtick, otherwise called the Gaulish Language.          141

Chap. II.       (2)          What the Ancient Language of the Grecians was before the
                              Time of Deucalion and his Son Hellenus.

Chap. III.      (3)          Of the Ancient Language of the Aborigines, since called Latins.               184

Chap. IV.      (4)          Of the true Origin of the Teutones or Germans.                                         204

Chap. V.       (5)          That the Teutonick Language has borrowed much from the Celtick.         221 

Chap. VI.      (6)          That the Persian Language has borrowed much of the Teutonick.             226

Chap. VII.    (7)          Of the following Table.                                                                                   234  

BOOK III.  (3)

Chap. I.         (1)          A Table of Greek Words, taken from the Celtick or Gaulish Language.         245

Chap. II.       (2)          A Table of Latin Words taken form the Celtick or Gaulish Language.             262

Chap. III.      (3)          A Table of the Teutonick, or German Words,
                                            that are taken from the Celtick Language

Book 2

Chap. 1
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The Holy Scripture, which we ought to look upon to be the fountain of Life and Truth, in a few words discovers those great and important things to us, which without the help of it must have been buried in Eternal Oblivion. For its by it we are informed that God in making of man, besides other endowments, whether of Grace or nature, where with he was pleased to qualify him, gave him words to be interpreters of his thought s and the hidden recesses of his heart. He endowed him with the gift of speech from the very first time of his creation, that he might be able to celebrate his praises, and to live in community and Society with others of his own kind I have shown upon another occasion at large, that this first language


was preserved by mankind, not only till the time of the universal Deluge, but even to the building of the famous Tower of Babel, since call Babylon.

The word Babel in Hebrew signifies confusion, because the almighty at that time altered and confounded men's languages, in order to punish them for their pride and wickedness. Before that there was but one language in the world, but on a sudden they're screwing up several, which God was pleased to form in men, that their measures might be confounded and disconcerted, since they spoke about 1 tongue before, and so by this confusion there Vain and foolish and Fries was quickly at an end. Mankind being astonished with this punishment, and confounded, with their vanity, or however brought to obey God's command, that required they should people and replenish the Earth ; and therefore they left the land of Shinar or Babylon, and quickly disbursed themselves into all parts of the world.

But here we are to observe from the authority of Divine writ, that the heads of families or tribes having at that time different languages, began to form different peoples or nations. For example, the children of Sem (Shem), which in scripture are called Elam, Assur, Arphaxad and Aram, to mention no other, there are more than the heads of families before the confusion of the languages, but afterwards they became all of them heads of families, and of nations: so that from them came the Elamites, after-


wards known by the name of Persians ; the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and eremites, otherwise called Syrians. The same thing as to be said for the descendants of Cham (Ham), and how can it be denied in respect to the children of Japhet, who was the oldest of Noah's Three Sons?

This Patriarchís eldest son was Gomer, and next to him Magog and Madai, without our naming four more, that are mentioned in the Scripture. It is certain that Madai was the father of the Medes, the scriptures, and especially the prophet speak no otherwise.
Magog is also looked upon to be the origin of the Scythians, or people of great Tartary. Gomer, who was the eldest, must certainly, as well as the rest, be the founder of a people, and who could they be but the Gomarians? From whom, according to Josephus, the Celtae or Gauls were descended. And if Gomer be the true stock of the Gauls, as I have already made out by so many other proofs and authorities, they must needs have a language quite different from other people, and that was the Celtic tongue.

But to carry this name no farther, which indeed properly appertained to know other than the European provinces toward the west, it was at first the language of the Gomarians in Asia, then of the Sacae, afterwards of the Titans, and also of the Cimbri or Cimmerians.

After all which, that is, a series of many ages, it became at last the language of the Celtae, or better known by the name of Gauls.


The language therefore, of the Celtae, that fixed in Gaul, was from the first stages of the post diluvian world, the language of Gomarians, who were seated originally in the higher Asia, towards Hircania and Bactriana, and its not to be doubted but the language of the Gomarians was that of Gomer, it was their head and founder, and it was the language of Gomer, it must necessarily have been one of those formed at the confusion of Babel. All these deductions are so true, natural, and well pursued, that I cannot see how they should be denied.

They are supported and confirmed by the scripture. For Moses, after having in the 10th of Genesis, enumerated the children of Japhet, and some of their descendants, at the head of all which he places Gomer, says a little after: these were they, who are dispersed into several countries, into the Isles of the Gentiles, everyone according to their language, tribe, and people.    Ab his divisae sunt Insulae Gentium, in regionibis suis,unusquisq; secundam linguam suam, & familias  suas, in Nationibis suis.

As for the Isles of the Gentiles, according to the Hebrew language, which is common in scripture, Maritime regions or provinces are met by it, that is, all those countries you pass into by sea, as the Lesser Asia, Greece, Italy, Gaul and Spain, and other like places. But it is certain they were the posterity of Japhet, that peoples all these countries. Gomer was his eldest son. The Gomarians were descended of him.


These as well as others, possessed countries in the Isles of the Gentiles:

Josephus says, that the Gomarians for those who are called Galls: They were the people there for that filled Gaul with their colonies. I say nothing of my own here, all of it is grounded on scripture, and those have been at the pains to be the interpreters of it.

But let us not rest here, for we ought to neglect nothing for the confirming a truth, which may be contested, because it has Anna Manor continued Heather to concealed and unknown.

It's certain from what has been offered, the Celtae, extended themselves to the utmost boundaries of the West, that is into Gaul, were the descendants of those, who anciently bore the name of Titans.

Descendants. Callimachus, who flourished in Egypt about 250 years before our Saviors time, was so Satisfied With It, that he took delight to recount it, because it seemed to tend to the honor of Ptolemy Philadelphus, his hero, who played them a very ill trick. These Celtae χελται were according to that author, οψιγονοι τιτηνες titanium posteri, or rather, titanium sera posteritas, the descendants of the Titans, and if I may say, their last and remote posterity; If These Celtae came from the blood of the Titans, it is not to be doubted, but they preserve their language, as being that of their fathers and ancestors, and what I have said before is a clear proof of it, but I have shown, in treating those princess who


ruled over the Titans, that they were the contemporaries of Abraham, and even of his father Terah ; and that they were more ancient than the reign of Belus, the father of Ninus, and the famous Empire of Assyria. Here is antiquity for you that is equal with that of the ancient Patriarchs. But that is not all, for before these people, that in Old times made so much noise in the world, bore the name of Titans, they had that of Sacae, under which they perform greater things as well in the Higher Asia, as in Armenia, part of which was seized by them from these Early times which come up almost to the dispersion at Babel, and the days of Gomer, the Sacae and the Titans spoke the Celtic tongue, as may have been seen by several words that are still in being, and by the proper names of those princes and princesses that ruled over these Titans.

If to all these reasons we Join one proof, and that is, that the Celtic is even at this day full of words, that in all appearance came from the Hebrew, and exceeding ancient, it remains without dispute. But this language was that of Gomer and his posterity. And hence we may easily see, that it had its origin in the country of Babylon, amidst the confusion the first language. I cannot see it could have any other beginning than this. But that is not so extraordinary thing, since there are several other languages that can also boast of it. Thus have I given you my thoughts on what might


be sad with most semblance of Truth, touching the origin of the Celtic language.

But before we go any further, I pray your attention to one particular. When the almighty, after the appeasing of His displeasure by the universal Deluge, which destroyed the wicked of the world, came to give his Blessing to the three sons of Noah, whom he had reserved for peopling the Earth again, he bid them multiply and increase, and replenish the Earth.
  et replete terram.

But when their father Noah, sometime after gave them his benediction, he said to Japhet his eldest son, God shall enlarge Japhet, &c, which was a very prophetic blessing, and dictated by the spirit of God, will let him know, that the bounds and possessions of Japhet, that is of his posterity, should be of a vast extent. In short the descendants of this ancient patriarch possessed above half Asia, and all Europe besides, to say nothing here of America.

If things were so, which of the sons of Japhet ought to have the greatest share in this propagation of his posterity, and peopling the vast countries they were to enjoy. If we speak according to the Rules of Nature and Equity, is eldest son, who was Gomer, according to the scripture, must have been the person. And in effect, it is what came to pass, according to the singular distribution of God's Providence, that orders all things according to his good pleasure. For it was from this


 Gomer, who settled first in the provinces of operation, that in process of time the Celtae came ; and these people were so warlike and numerous, that they possessed almost all the countries of Europe. And hence it was that on the one side, the Cape of Oby, which is at the mouth of the river Oby, the farther part of Muscovy was anciently called Promontorium Celticae litarmis, carumbucis lucis, and that on the other side Cape Sinister, which is the farthest balance of Spain, and the Western point of Galicia, was also called Promontorium Celticum, from the Celtae, who possess these countries of Spain.

The Celtae were there for anciently seated in both the extremities of Europe, towards the east and west. Besides we have historians and geographers who fix the dwellings of the Celtae from the den o and the Alps, in all the west and north, where in it may be said, they were not mistaken. It was upon these topics in the thirties, that the most ancient Greeks comprehended two-thirds of Europe, under the name of Celtae, or Celto-Scythe. Veteres Graecorum Scriptores , says Strabo, universas Gentes septentrionales {},  Σχυθας  ?χ Κελτοσχυθας εχαλσυν       Scythas & Celto-Scythas appellaverunt.

This learned man had already said in his first book, that those ancient Greeks gave also the name of Celtae and Iberi, or rather that of Celti-Berians, and Celto-Scythians, tell toast at the ends, to those people who live towards the western parts of a Europe. His words are Celtae & Iberi, Aut mixto no-


mine Celtiberi ac Celto-Scythae appellati sunt.

We ought to be satisfied from those ancient Greek authorities, that the provinces of Europe, as well towards the West as the North, or full of Celtae, which gave Everest, who lived a little before the reign of Alexander the Great, occasion to say, that Celtica was over prodigious extant ; 

Ephorus ingenti magnitudine dicit esse, Την χε΄τιχην, Celticam.

The ancient Grecians we see, understood very well, that the Celtae in ancient times had possessed a great part of Europe, and they plainly enough own it. But it is strange, they did not know, that the same Celtae under the name of Titans, continued about 300 years masters of the Lesser Asia, Thrace and Greece, without exception ; which I have so well proved, when I treated of Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter, that it cannot be overthrown. On the other hand, the Latins seem to be ignorant, that only one third of Italy, had for several ages been in the possession of the Umbrians, who were a Gaulish or Celtic people. The same thing may be said in respect to the Sabins, Osci, Opiqui, Volsians and Brutians, all of whom, they were very ancient, descended from the Celtae. And indeed I cannot but wonder, that the Romans, either did not know or else perhaps disassembled it. The Greeks did the same in reference to the Titans. For the ancient fragments which we still have in our hands, both of the one and all of the other Nation, would induce us


to believe they were not altogether ignorant of this truth.

Be it as it will, it's playing from what I have said, that the blessing of Noah, and respect to Japhet, was a prediction that was fully accomplished, that his possessions were vastly extensive, but that he himself enjoyed so many countries and territories, know otherwise stand by the posterity of Gomer, his eldest son. That he settled many colonies in Asia, and so the great part of the earth with the people descended from him ; it was by means of so many colonies, that the language of Gomer, or if you will of the Gomarians, that had its beginning in Asia, afterwards spread itself over all of Europe, under the name of Celtic. For what was no otherwise known then by this, and that Gaulish, which is the same thing in the western parts. While it remained in the east, I mean in the territories of the operation, it was considered no otherwise than the language of the Gomarians, who in process of time and had the name of Sacae. Let us therefore inquire now in the first place, whether the same language was not enlarged, or did not undergo some mixture and change, before it left the province's adjoining to the Caspian Sea, and Bactriania, for there it was, that it first had beginning

That we may more easily clear up this point, we are to remember that the Gomarians, who dwell in Margiana, having by reason of civil and domestic


quar-rels, drove some of their people out, these passed over the high mountains lying to the south of that Province, and entered into a country, that to them was new and strange. And these exiles, as I may call them, were afterwards known by the name of Parthians. From them, I have very good reason to believe, the Persians, who became so famous afterwards, were descended, though something is to be set of their neighbors of Carmania; and hence it is, that ancient authors call them sometimes Carmani, and other wiles Germani.

There is no room to quibble about these two words, since they signify the same thing, and in the Celtic tongue, as much as war-like men. For here we are to observe by the way, that there are many words of that language still to be found in the Persian tongue, which we are not to wonder at, since the Persians are descended from the most ancient Parthians, and that these last were the progeny of the Comarians, afterwards call Sacae, and the ancestors of the Celtae.

Moreover, the Persian language is in many things like the Teutonic, or the High Dutch, and this likeness is sometimes so apparent, that very learned men have

stood amazed at it, which they need not be, had they well-considered, that those two Nations, I mean, the Persians and Germans, had anciently received very numerous colonies, that came from the same people, such as lived in Upper Asia,


Known by the name of Daes, enlighten, Da or Dai. For when they passed into Europe, they were called Dacians, and were the Daci of the Romans, who were often intermixed with the Getae, and they made the ancient sometimes confound the two Nations. But this only by the way, I may perhaps speak more fully to it and another place. I am now to observe, that the Teutones had their origin from these Dacians that came from Asia, but more particularly from the Phrygians, as shall be made out hereafter. These Dacians had several times sent colonies amongst the Parthians and Persians, their neighbors, and it may be said, that Arsacidan Parthians reigned in Asia mainly by their Help. These things considered, it's not to be wondered, that the Persian language, notwithstanding the changes that may have undergone had anciently, and even still retains so much likeness, in many things, to the Teutonic. Perhaps this discovery of matters that were so obscure before, may be no unpleasing thing to the lovers of Antiquity.

But as the Celtic tongue, in the early ages of the world, was communicated to the Parthians, and so to the Persians, who were colonies of the other people. It had on the other side received many things from the Chaldeans, long before Abraham's time. And that came to pass, so far as we are able to conjecture in the following manner. After that the Gomarians had obtained the name of Sacae, and multi-


plied Very much in the upper Asia, towards the countries of Hyrcania and Bactriana, several bodies of them being sent out to seek their Fortune, fell into the greater Armenia, and finding it to be a fine and delightful country, from whence they might promise great Felicity to themselves, they fixed there, and made a powerful settlement. And so the Sacaei communicated their name to part of this province, which was called Sacasena, or rather Sacastena, signifying as much as the country of the Sacae. The Gomarian Sacae, by this new settlement, found themselves to be neighbors to the Chaldeans, and as it were, mixed with them. For you must know, that in the first stage of the post diluvian World, several of the Chaldeans returned into the mountains of Armenia, there were there the more easily to contemplate the stars and to live with the more safety from the invasions of other people.

Auguries, divinations, magic and enchantments were then much in use among most nations in the world; and they undertook nothing of any considerable importance, without consulting their diviners, and the like. It's well known that the Chaldeans in those times were looked upon to be the greatest Masters, in these over curious and diabolical Sciences. The Sacae, who were their neighbors, were not wanting to become their disciples, and were, if I may so say, initiated by them into all those Mysteries of Superstition and


Iniquity. It was therefore in the Chaldean schools, that they chiefly learned all that which was most refined and Secret in those profane and dangerous Arts.

Hence it was, that they learn to take their nearest relations, even their own the sisters to be their wives, and to make this criminal, not to say, abominable and incestuous Alliance, a point of honor and religion also. And it was from the same principles of this dangerous doctrine, that some ages after the Sacickt or Titan princess, I mean Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter, married their own sisters. It was from hence they learned, as I may say, to stigmatize their bodies, that is to imprint certain figures, marks or characters upon them, whereby they were consecrated, not to the service of their imaginary deities, but to the worship of Devil's, and the Prince of Darkness, that seduce them. Lastly, to pass over many other particulars, it was the school that they learned to inspect the entrails of Beast, and perhaps of men, too, in order to have their more important divinations, the more confirmed by the fibers or lobes of the liver. This the Grecians and their language called
Επατοσχοπειν  Fecur inspicere, or Fecur Consulere, that is, to consult, or rather by way of divination to inspect the liver. It's so certain that these sorts of divination came from the Chaldeans, that the famous Nabuchadonosor (Nebuchadnezzer), King of Chaldea and Babylon, made use of it before he laid Siege to Jerusalem. For being come


to The meeting of two ways, one of which lead to the Judea, and the other two of the country of Amman, and not knowing which way he should go ; the scripture says, that beside other divinations he consulted delivers of Beast, and there are Pawn without any more do determine to go to Judy, in order to destroy Jerusalem, to which he believed his Gods had directed him.

But to return to the Sacae that settled in the greater Armenia, the Curetes, or with their priest, sacrificers, doctors and diviners, were not wanting to learn these pernicious sciences and forementioned customs inspired into them by demons and evil spirits, that had seduced most part of the world to such wickedness of the Chaldeans.

The Curetes glorified that they taught them to the princes and kings of their nation and Country ; and hence it was, that Uranus, his son Saturn and Grandson Jupiter, affected to marry their own sisters, Titea, Rhea and Juno ; and The Poets who wrote these things, were not mistaken. By all these particulars it's easy to see, that the Armenian Sacae had some intimacy and communication with the ancient Chaldeans, that they imitated them in many of their customs, and that they also borrowed many words of their language, as may be seen still to this day.

The Sacae, the posterity of Gomer, made "Irruptions" from the Armenia into Cappadocia adjoining to the Euxine Sea; and not long


After passed from thence into the upper Phrygia, under the conduct of Acmon, and his brother Doeas, who in all probability was his diviner. For in those times, princes, and even Kings themselves, glorified to have skill in Auguries and Divinations, as well as in delusions and enchantments. And here we are to observe a thing that is of some importance to what I have advanced, that these people came in a manner from the same stock in blood as the Gomarian Sacae. For the Phrygians had Ashkenaz, who in scripture is mentioned to be the eldest son of Gomer, for their father and origin; and seeing we have made it out, that the Sacae were descended from the fame Gomer, is impossible but these two ancient and famous people must agree, and be like one another in many respects,. Hence it is, that the Celtae, or Gauls, who are the descendants of the Sacae, and of the Teutones or Germans, the posterity of the Phrygians, have always had resemblance in their customs and manners to one another.

It was in Phrygia, and under the government of Uranus, the son of Acmon, I have before spoken of, that the Gomarian Sacae, began to change their name, and to assume that of Titans, which signifies, a man of the Earth, or an earth-born man. This name grew famous in The Reigns of Saturn and of his son Jupiter, under whom the Titans spread themselves more and more in Greece, Italy, Sicily, Gaul and Spain. And it may well


enough be imagined, that their language became as extensive as their empire, which lasted for some ages, this having always been the practice of Victorious and conquering Nations. And therefore when you shall by and by hear me say, that the language of the ancient Greeks, I mean those who lived before the time of Hellenus and Deucalion, was full of Celtic, and when after that you shall find me add, that the language of the Aborigines, or first Latins of Italy was enriched by that of the Kelty, there will be in a manner no great difficulty made to believe it, at least I cannot think I shall meet with much reluctance in this matter.

Should we suppose for once that the Empire of the Titans, or the ancestors of the Kelty, was settled over Greece and Italy, as indeed it cannot be contested, a man would in some degree be esteemed an "Opiniatre" and unreasonable, not to believe a thing that had has such a face of Truth, and has as it as it were, scarce anything to induce him to the contrary.

And if after all, it should seem strange and novel, which cannot well be, that the Greeks and the Romans should receive anything from The Barbarians, it can be so to no other than to those, who are about little acquainted with Antiquity, or have not sufficiently heeded what I have offered, and discovered to them upon this head. But if there be any doubt or scruple yet remaining, I hope


it will all vanish, upon their reading that which follows.  {Chapter 1 ends here on 158}

Chapter 2  Begins on this page 158
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What the Ancient Language of the Grecians was, before the time of Deucalion and his son Hellenus.

I think it will not be improper in this place, to say a word or two concerning the origin of the ancient Greeks, before I come to the language used by these renowned people. How remote so ever it may seem to be from us, yet it is neither so obscure nor uncertain, as that of several other nations. For in short it's known they were the descendants of Javan, or rather Jaon, mentioned in scripture, to be the fourth son of Japhet, by which it plainly appears that Javan was one of the brothers of Gomer, was the eldest of all. And thus the Celtae and the Greeks, who seemed in customs and manners to differ so much from one another, yet had two brothers for their heads and first founders. And perhaps this was the reason that these two famous nations were not once so unlike another, as they appeared to be in succeeding ages.


Javan then was the true stock, or origin, not only of the Ionians, but even of all the Grecians, as Josephus, who calls him Javan, assures us in his Antiquities:

Απο δε Ιωυενο Ιωνια χ, παντες Ελληνες γιγονα??
{} i.e. ab Javan Iones & omnes Gaeci prognati sunt.

It was from this same Javan in that the Ionians took their name, according to Saint Epiphanius, and he was also the first author of the ancient Greek tongue, which these people took care to preserve:
Ο την παλαιαν γλωσσαν των Ελληνων εχου/ντες     Aquo Iones omnes traxere, {} qui veterum Graecorum Linguam retinuerunt.

But yet we must not think that these people had the name of Ionians from their first beginning. All strangers called them know otherwise than Jaonians, as we learn from The Scholar Aristophanus, who says, {} omnes Graecos Barbari Jaones apellabant.  

Παντας τος Ελληνας Ιαονας Βαρβαροι εχαλον  

But they were not barbarians and strangers only that called them by this name, as the scholar would have it, since Homer himself, in the 12th book of his Illiads names them so ; and this would make us think that the person, well afterwards was called Javan, was anciently named Jaon. Be this as it will, the word in process of time was from Jaonians, softened into that of Ionians, and this name the people of Attica chiefly retained, and also their colonies settled in Asia, and perhaps before that in the maritime parts of the Peloponnesus, towards the country of the Sicyonians.


What the Greeks say is not to be bore with, concerning the Ionians having their name from Ion, the son of Xutus, and Grandson of Hellenus, whose father was Deucaleon, so famous in ancient history. For it is certain, that the people of Attica, long before the time of Ion, were called Ionians, as well as their colonies in Peloponnesus, and this made Pausanias, a critical author enough, say, that if the Ionians had their name from this Ion, the son of Xutus, it was only by way of addition and over plus.

Quamquam istud eis non mutationemnominus attulit sed additamentum.

Besides Herodotus has very well observed, that the Athenians, and those of them that lived in the colonies of Asia, did not care to be called Ionians, being the name which most of them hated, and this (besides that it was odious, by reason of the cowardice of the Asiatic Ionians)
because they would not have it be thought that they came from Ion, the great grandson of Deucalion, who was a barbarous Prince.

But seeing we have insensibly mentioned Deucalion, You must know that the poets and historians make him to be the son of Prometheus, whom they'll have to be the son of Japet, the brother of Saturn, and the uncle Jupiter. If that be true, Deucalion must have been descended from the blood of the Titan princess and consequently of the Celtic race. But to make him be Saturn's


Nephew, Is a piece of ignorance not to be tolerated. For this Titan Prince lived in the time of Abraham, and Prometheus, the father of Deucalion, did not come out of Asia into Greece till about eight hundred years after. However it were, Deucalion as much as a stranger and a barbarian, as he was made to be, obtained the title of King in the midst of Greece, and not far from Attica. He began his reign in the ninth year of Cecrops, the first king of Athens, which was 1,574 years before our savior's birth, as may be seen by the Marmora Aundeliana. Now it was in the reign of this foreign Prince, that the Deluge happened, which from him was called Deucalionís flood, and made so much noise in Greece, though in itself was no great matter.

Deucalion having in this manner fixed himself towards Parnassus, at his death left two sons, the first of whom was called Helenus, and the other Amphictyon, the last of these governed at Athens after his brother-in-law, Cranaus, who was their second king, and whom the other dethroned.

As for Hellenus the eldest, he rained and in the country of Phocus, which was part of the lower Thessaly. The Mamora Arundeliana in a very particular manner informs us all of what it is extremely remarkable, that in the second year of his Reign, those people who were then called Greeks
 Γραιχοι, took the name of Hellenes Ελληνες, Hellenes appalati sunt. And this name grew afterwards so pleasing to the people of Greece, that they, as it were, adopted it as their beloved name. Though it came from a


Prince of a barbarous race. This remarkable change happened in Greece, or at least in some part of it, 1521 years before our Christian era begin. This Hellenus had three sons, the eldest of which was called Eolus, the second Dorus, and the third Xuthus.

The first by right of Primogeniture, succeeded his father in his dominions, and reigned after him and Phocis, the South part of Thessaly; The 2nd has Estiotidis for his share, which was part of the same Province. But his descendants after many vicissitudes, being expelled, at last fixed towards the borders of Parnassus, between Phocidis and Mount Eleus.

As for Xuthus, He went to dwell with Athens, and having married the daughter of a rectus, he had two sons by her, who were ion and a curse, as historians name them. The first of these, for his great action screw very famous and having done great services to the people of Attica, he obtained much reputation and authority among them these and shirt with a sons and grandsons of the famous Deucalion, and the settlement they made in several parts of Greece.

Here I must desire my reader to stop for a moment, that he may carry two very remarkable considerations along with him. The first is the address of these foreign princes, and the other the ignorance of the Grecians, who value themselves so much for their exactness. As for Deucalion, this Prince having at first obtain a small territory in Lycoria, upon Mount



Parnassus, But not willing to be limited within so narrow bounds, he made war against his neighbors, and himself master of Phocidis in Thessaly, and it may be of Estiotidis also. Observe, I pray you, that Phocidis was not called by that name, above 160 years before the reign of Deucalion, and that it received from Phith a prince that came thither from Arcadia.

This small territory of lower Thessaly was otherwise called Hellades, and this, which was the true name, came from a very ancient colony of people called Hellades, signifying as much as the country of the Hellians,

In Greek Ελλοι, Selli, or Sellians.

Who are also named

These people coming from Thesprosia, near Dodona, with a famous Oracle was, endevoured to fix themselves in the lower Thessaly, which country from them took the name of Hellades, signifying as much as the country of the Hellians.

Deucalion, to please the people, whom he had Conquered, call his son Hellenus, as if he had been descended from those people, and this same Hellenus coming afterwards to be king, required is subjects, who are at that time called
Γραιχοι  Graeci which was a common name to the whole nation, and who are descended from these ancient Hellians, should for the future be named Hellenians. I say they were called Greeks before but we are here to take notice that the country where Hellenus reigned, had bore the name of Hellades, as well as Phosidis, but that for a long time after inhabitants called themselves Greeks, and not Hellians, as anciently they had done. In


short, in the time of Cecrops and Decalion and there were, properly speaking, no other inhabitants than those about Dodona, and the people of Phiocitis, who were a colony of them, with some other Thessalians, that went by the name of Greeks, that is, there were no other descendants of the ancient Hellians, that bore that name, whether they were those that continued in the Sprotia, or those that lived in Thessaly. Hellenus therefore would have his subjects quit the name of Greeks, and assume that of Helenius in its Stead. This we not only learn from the Marmora Arundellians, but also from Apollodorus, Aristotle, Pliny, Eusebius, and others.

That which is very surprising to me is that a name, which a petty Prince of foreign extraction, gave at first to no other than the inhabitants of Hellader or Phiotidis, who were his subjects, should in process in time become common to all the Grecians. And indeed we find they made no manner of difficulty to assume that of Hellenians, though it was not till about seven hundred years after, towards the beginning of the Olympians, and seven or eight hundred years before our savior. For we find by Homer that in his time they called no other people Helenians, but those of Hellades in Thessaly.

King Hellenus, in respect to his children imitated the policy of his father Deucalion. He knew well enough that the most ancient people of Greece were called either Eolians or Dorians, and that there


were several of that name in Thessaly. His eldest son he named Eolus, and to the second he gave the name of Dorus affecting thereby to make them bear the names of those ancient people of Greece. Xuthus, his third son, did in a manner the same thing for having fixed himself at Athens, where the name of the Jaonians, as also the Ionians, was very ancient, he called his eldest son Ion, to the other he gave the name of Acheus, because there were a people called Achaeans in Thessaly, from whence he came.

It's an easy matter to observe not only in Deucalion, who was a cunning Prince, but also in Hellenus and Xuthus his son and grandson, a singular piece of "Affectation," and admirable addresses to insinuate themselves into the affections of the Greeks, and to conciliate their favor, and perhaps this address of theirs might be accompanied with a secret ambition of transmitting their names to posterity. Certainly if these were the designs of these barbarous princes it must be owned they succeeded admirably therein. For the Greeks and process of time had that compliance for them, as to give to their language the name of Hellenus, by calling it no other than the Hellenic tongue; and the dialects of it, the names of Deucalionís Descendants. For example, did not Ion, the son of Zeus, communicate his name to the Ionians, and to their Ionic tongue? Was not the same thing done in respect to Eolus and Dorus, his kindred? Were not the Ionic and


Dorick Dialects so denominated from them. The Greeks both say it and write it, but if they fancy that these names, which have been so ancient standing in Greece, came originally from the grandsons of Deucalian, we must charge them with being guilty of a piece of inexcusable ignorance.

I have adventure to say the US much, and I think I have good reason for it. For it is certain that the Greek tongue had these three dialects Ab Origine, and that they bore those names I have before mentioned many ages before The Reigns of Hellenus and Deucalion, as we shall see presently. It is true that King Hellenus had the glory to communicate his name to the Grecians, who from him were called
Ελληνες  Hellenes, as their language was named the Hellenic tongue, and what is very surprising is, that the name of Greeks 
Γραιχοι  Graeci, in time became so hateful and neglected, that it is scarce at all to be met with in any of their writings, or but very rarely, and that only in some of their ancient poets.

As to Eolus and Dorus, the two sons of Hellenus, if they communicated their names to the Eolians and Dorian's, as the Greeks will have it, it was only as I said before, by way of addition and "surplusage", for these names were in being among the Greeks many ages, before they ever heard of Deucalion and his grandsons. And this the Greek historians have not given due heed to in their writings. But that we may show that these names of Ionians and Eolians came not originally from the poster-


ity of Deucalion, as the Greeks have fancy, it will be proper here to give a scheme of matters in Greece, and to inspect the state of it about the time ofCecrops and Deucalion ; for by this short View things will become more easily understood, then otherwise they can be

We may boldly affirm, that the Greeks have no certain records or monuments of antiquity that can be depended on before the time of Cecrops, the first king of Athens. They're history, properly speaking, begins with that prince, and it is from him downwards that we have a good regular succession of their kings and archons. With him being the Parian Marbles, which are a curious remnant of antiquity ; and it is from him that Eusebius in his Chronicle, continues the succession of all the Athenian Kings.

These were the first princes of this country, of whom anything can be "averred," that is certain, and there were some ancient monuments remaining of them in that famous city, in the time of the Roman emperors. Who do you imagine this Cecrops was? Do you take him to be one of the Greek race, or one of the indigenes of Attica, of whom the first Athenians always boasted they were descended? There is nothing in all this. Cecrops was an Egyptian by descent, and born in the city of Sais, who when he passed by sea into Greece, found Attica become a prey to barbarians, as well as most of the adjacent countries. Some of them he conquered by Force of Arms, others he brought to submit by gentle methods, and having


made them more tractable, as well as the natives of the country, he rained for the space of 50 years over them. He began his government and Attica 806 years before the Olympiads, according to the computation of the Marmora Arundelliana, and 1582 years before our savior's birth {1582 BC}.

Cecrops had not been about 9 years upon the throne, when Deucalion, who was a barbarous prince, coming from some parts of the operation, began to reign in Lycoria towards Mount Parnassus. His son Hellenus, after his decease governed one part of his dominions, I mean, a part of Thessally, but he had scarce been 4r years upon the throne, when the famous Cadmus came by sea from Phoenicia, that is, from about Tyre and Sidon, and this new comer seized upon Thebes, the capital of Beotia, where he built a citadel, called Cadmea by his name, and there fixed the seat of his Dominion. Historians assure us, he brought the Phoenician Letters, which were then 16 in number, into Greece, and say, that before his time these people, that became afterwards so polite, had none. But I cannot for many reasons be of this opinion, though it has commonly obtained amongst the Grecians, as well as other authors.

I am therefore confident that there were letters in Greece before Cadmus his time, and more especially among those people call the Eolians; I mean, the Ancient Eolians, who were several ages before Hellenus and Deucalion. But we cannot now enter upon "Disquisition" of this mat-


ter. Cadmus first settled in Beotia 1519 {BC} years before our savior came into the world, and 310 before the Trojan War. 8 years after his arrival came a body of Egyptians, under the conduct of Dennis, into Peloponnesus. This Prince landed at Argos ; and having a little time expelled King Eleanor, rained in his stead in Argos and argolis, in the neighborhood of Laconia. The government of this stranger begin about 1,500 years before the date of the Christian era.

From what has been said, you may see the changes that happened in Greece, about the time of Cecrops and Deucalion, and that in the space of 70 years, a great part of this country was filled with strangers and barbarians, who reign there a long time, and made potent settlements ; so I have not enumerated Eumalpus and Tereus, among these foreigners, both of whom came from Thrace, and the first of them at that time possessed himself of a part of Attica, towards Megara, and the other a Canton of Phocus, which bore the name of Daulidis.

Let us farther add, that about the revolution of one age, after the death of Cecrops, the famous Pelops, the son of Tantalus, who was then king of Phrygia, came into Greece, with a good number of followers, and this Phrygian having not long after married Hyppodamia, the daughter and only heir of Oenomaus, he reigned in Elis, after his father-in-law's decease. Pelops


governed this new Dominion a long time, Peopling it with Phrygians, and grew so potent, that he communicated his name to Peloponnesus, which signifies the peninsula of Pelops. Having attained to this degree of power and authority, it is not to be doubted but that for the better securing of his Acquisitions, of whose power his neighbors could not choose but be jealous, he made use of strangers, brought thither out of Phrygia. It's easy from this compendious account, which is been Faithfully taken from the records of ancient times, to see that the great part of Greece was under the power and Dominion of foreign princess 15 or 16 hundred years before our SaviorísNativity, which gave Hecataeus of Miletus, a very ancient historian, for he flourished in the time of Darius, the son of Hysdaspes, occasion to say, that the Barbarians dwelt in the Peloponnesus before the Grecians, that is, before the descendants of Hellenus:

{} Quod ante Graecos habitaverunt eam barbari.

But that which Hecataeus says only the Peloponnesus, Strabo assures us, was true in respect almost to all grease in these words:
{} Ecquidem tota fere Grecia antiquitus a Barbaris fuit >>fuit looked to be an f as best as I could tell. I entered it into Google translator and it does come up as "was" in English.<<

And this we have also confirmed by Pausanias in his first book of the description of ancient Greece. Wherefore this famouss country was filled with foreigners, during the Reigns of Ce-


crops and Deucalion, and sometime after. Now if that be true, as there is no room to question it, since all the Greeks confess it themselves ; what we can think of the ages preceding that time? Is not there room to believe that the ancient and first Greeks in those remote ages, being less capable to defend themselves, must have their country overrun with barbarians? And these came either out of the territories of Asia, or those parts of Europe, which lie to the north. What I've said before concerning the Titans shows this to be true enough. Seeing that they were absolute masters of all Greece in the reigns of Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, and some others, for above 300 years together.

I have Heather to Endeavor to give a concise and distinct idea of the state of Greece, in the time of cash crops and Deucalion, the word contemporaries, and in that of Hellenus, and his two sons, healers and Doris, who succeeded him in his Dominion's. We are now to show, and that even in opposition to the common opinion of the Grecians, but they were not these two princess, and were strangers by descent, that gave name to the first Eolians and Dorians, of ancient Greece, and that the Ionians had not theirs neither from their nephew Ion, the son of Xuthus.

In order to this, we need no more than to review what I have already said concerning Javan or Jaon, who, according to scripture, was Japhetís forth Son, and looked upon to be the father and founder of the Greek nation, that had its origin from him. This


person, Being the son of Japhet, lived in the time of the confusion of languages, and the dispersion of the people over the face of the Earth. He had Greece to his share, according to Josephus, and the ancient fathers unanimously agreed to it. There were above 1500 years space, from the time of Javan or Jaon, to the reign of Deucalion, and his son Hellenus, who gave the name of Hellenes to the Grecians. Things being so, I must ask what name did the first inhabitants of Greece go by, for so long a revolution of time? For in short they must have one to distinguish them from other nations? And what must be must that be but Jaonians, as being come from Joan, their first founder. This name and process of time became somewhat softened and was changed into that of Ionians, and perhaps Aonians.

Again we have all the reason imaginable to believe, that Javan or Jaon usually resided in Attica, and hence it was undoubtedly, that the Athenians boasted they were the Aborigines or Autochthones, according to their language, which signified people born in that country, and natives that came from no other place:

Cujus suae Patrie, said Demosthenes of old, dicuntur esse Autochthones seu Indigenae, {}
After which he presently adds, soii omnium hominum, ex quo lati sunt, hanc incoluerunt, & posteris suis tradiderunt.
And all this we find confirmed by Socrates, Plato, Euripides, and several others. But as the Athenians boasted


much of their Antiquity in this kind, and became very fond of it, Antisthenes the philosopher, in a way of raillery once told them, that he wondered they should so much glory in the thing which Grasshoppers and snails could as much pretend to as themselves. The sort of pleasantry might help a little to lessen that vanity, but could not make the people of Attica less in point of antiquity, and we may say the Arcadians contested it with them upon this account to no purpose. However, Socrates had no grounds to say that Athens was the most ancient city of all Greece, {}, Urbem antiquissimam.  For I take it certain, but after Pausanius, that of Lycosura, which was in Arcadia, was older.

As therefore the first inhabitants of Attica came from Javan or Jaon ; they were anciently called Jaonians. And this Strabo makes out upon the authority of Homer, who in the 13th book of his Iliads has these words: {}, Illicautem Baeoti & Jaones and says that by Jaones, that poet meant the Athenians, Athenienses significat.

 Strabo in the same place shows distinctly, that the inheritance of Attica, and the country of Megara, were very anciently called Jaonians, and also adds, as a thing very remarkable, that they bore the name of Ionians, before the building of that ancient city:  Antiquitus hanc Regionem  He speaks of the territory of Megara,  Sicut & Atticum  {}, Iones habitabant nec dum Conditis Megaris.

The City of Megara was very ancient, having


been That's about the time of Inachus, several ages before The Rains of Cecrops and Deucalion. Had not Pausanias therefore reason to say, that the ancient Ionians had their name from Ion, the son of Xuthus, it was only by way of surplus,  Non mutationem eis attulit, sed Attitamentum.

This is most certain and undisputable; and I cannot imagine how the Greeks, who pretended to so much skill in Antiquity, could think or write otherwise.

Wherefore we must distinguish between these two sorts of Ionians, I mean the ancient ones, who had their name as well as their origin from Jaon, and were call Jaonians, or Ionians, for the easier pronunciation ; and the new ones, who indeed had their name from Ion, the grandson of Hellenus. The same thing is to be noted in respect to the Ionic or Ionian language, for there were two sorts of them, viz, the ancient Ionic, which was spoke in Athens, and the neighboring Parts, before the time of Cecrops, and there is reason to believe that it was same as the Attic tongue of those times ; and the modern Ionic, that had its name from Ion, the great grandson of Deucalion, and it was this that in process of, came to be distinguished from the Attic dialect. What has been the said concerning the Ionians may also be applied to the Eolians and Dorians, since it is certain that there were two sorts of them, the ancient and modern. For the easier understanding of this matter, you must know that Jaon or Javan the


Father of the Greeks, had several Sons, the eldest of whom was named Elisa, for so Moses calls him. This person had the peninsula of Greece for his share, which was afterwards called Peloponnesus, and his name had been preserved not only by the country, call Elidis/Elidus, but also by a river, named Elissa, that falls into the sea, near Cyllene, and was a port of the Elians. Josephus ind his Antiquities says, that the descendants of Elisa were at first called Eliseans, but afterwards called Eolians. This is confirmed by Saint Jerome in his Hebrew traditions, by Eustathius of Antioch, in his commentaries upon the Hexameron, and by St. Isadore, in his Origines. It cannot be denied but that the posterity of Elisa had the name of Eolians, for these were without any dispute the first people of Greece, after the Jaonians or Ionians ; but part of them had also in very early times the name of Dorians. So that these first people of Peloponnesus were divided into Eolians and Dorians, Each of which had their particular dialect, call the Eolic and Doric. The first of these chiefly obtained in Elus, Arcadia, and the neighboring countries, and the other was spoke in Laconia and Argolis.

I cannot tell but that the name of Dorians, which is very ancient, might come from the Greek {}, that formally signified a bark or ship, and so it may be Dorians implied no more than Seamen or Sailors. It's certain that these first Dorians of Peloponnesus were great Sailors, and then it was by the help of their barks or ships that they fixed the 


first colonies that were ever in the Isles of Crete and Rhodes, and in several other islands in the Aegean and Ionian seas, as also in Sicily, hence it was that the people of these Isles were from very early times esteemed Dorian's, and their language ever went for Doric. Dorians being the settled very early in the Isle of Rhodes, They carried colonies by sea into several other parts, and especially to the coast of Gaul near the Rhosne, as ancient history makes it out to us.

The Grecians, I mean the most learned of them, have fancied that the tongue had its name from Eolus, the eldest son of Hellenus. Aeolica, said Jamblicus, Quae ab AEolo nomen sortita est.

They have the same notion of the Dorick, and that it came from Dorus, the Second Son of that Prince. But it is an error that cannot be born either in Jamblicus or the other Greeks that went before him. I take it for granted, that the Eolic, and the same may be said of the Doric tongue, was of so ancient standing, especially in the territories of Peloponnesus, as to proceed the times of Hellenus and his father Deucalion above a thousand years ; for it is very plain that this language that afterwards spreads so much was in use in the time that Jupiter and his father Saturn reigned in Greece. In so much, that it must have been in Vogue even in Abraham's days and it is upon account of great Antiquity of the Eolic tongue, that shows Josephus in his history of the Jews says that the posterity of Elisa were afterwards called Eolians.


Here I desire you to observe that these Eolians multiplied very much and Elidis, and yet more in Arcadia, that was in the middle of Peloponnesus, as well as most ancient Arcadians., likewise bore the name of Pelasgians, and under it form several colonies both in Greece and Italy, it is not to be believed, how much the Eolic tongue spread itself every way by means of these settlements. Hence it was that Strabo made no scruple to say, that all the Grecians that had live without the Peloponesan Isthmas, accepting the Athenians, Megarians and Dorian's, who dwelt towards Mount Parnassus, were even then in his time reckoned Eolians:

Omnes enim Creaeci, qui extra Isthmum sunt, Exceptis Athniensibus, Megarensibus, Doriensibus, qui circa Parenassum degunt,         . . . etiam nunc Eoles vocantur.  Strabo, 1.8.

It's therefore certain that the Eolians, who had their origin in Peloponnesus, overspread all Greece by the several settlements made by the Pelasgians of Arcadia. This was the way by which the Eolic tongue prevailed so much, and we find it proved by several parts of history, but it was fixed in Thessaly long before the rain of Cecrops and Deucalion.

How can the Greeks tell us, that the Eolian the sand that came from the grandson of Deucalion, whose name was Eolus? This cannot be, and therefore ought to be rejected as scandalous and erroneous.

But least it should be Imagine by some that this language of the Ancient Aliens should be only confined to the provin-


ces of Greece, it spread itself in the early ages of time, even to the heart of Italy; and we have reason to believe the Arcadians were chiefly the people, who brought it thither, one while under the name of Eonotrians, and at another time of Pelasgians, and it may be under some other yet more ancient, then either; though altogether unknown to us. That which is to be depended on in this matter is, that their first and most ancient language of the Latins, which was called Prisca by Saint Isidore in his Origenes, and which will have to have been in use, even in the time of Saturn and Janus, was made of the language of the Ancient Eolians, as we shall see here after.

That ancient Latin tongue now mentioned, was that of the Aborigines, and those people, according to the most learned of the Roman authors, came from the Peloponnesus. Upon which Dionysius Hallicarnasseus says very aptly, that if what they write concerning the Aborigines was true, they must needs come from Arcadia.  Quod si istorum Sana est Narration, non possuni esse Coloni alterius Generis quam Arcadici.  

Now the Aborigines being, according to his opinion, descended from the Arcadians of Peloponnesus, it is not to be wondered at, that the language of the ancient Latin was so like that of the old, Eolians, which chiefly prevailed in Arcadia.

Seeing their for the language of the Aborigines of Italy, who were esteem to be first Latins was for the most part made all that of the aliens of Greece, it clearly


follows that the ancient Eolick tongue could neither have its name nor origin from Eolus, the eldest son of Hellenus, as Jamblicus after other Greek authors, will have it. The reason is plain, the Aborigines were many ages in being, not only before the time of Hellenus and his son Eolus, but even before that of Cecrops and Deucalion. Hence it is, and I take it to be an observation and never made by any other before me, that the Latins never called the people of Greece, Hellenes, which yet is the name they gave themselves ; but always Grai or Gaeci. Because the Aborigines were people long before Deucalion came to settle in Greece, and that his son Hellenus gave the name of Hellenes to the inhabitants. They were before called {} or else {}

 This name the ancient Latins retained, Having not heard their fathers ever mention that of Hellenes, which the Grecians had not till after the reign of Hellenus and his children. This remark which very distinctly shows the Antiquity of the Eolic tongue, should be well taken notice of.

But here comes another of much greater importance, it relates to the same Eolic tongue, and plainly makes out that it has borrowed and Infinity of things of the Celtic or Gaulish language. And to the end it may not be sought, that I would either impose upon the world, or speak at random only, I shall produce several words of the ancient Eolic language, which could come from no other than the Celtae, even when they


went by the name of Titans, and we're masters of all grease. I might in this place shut down all the numerals, from 1 to 10, or rather 20, from 20 to a hundred, and so on to a thousand. The two languages agree so well in this, that there is no room to contest it. These numbers we may perhaps produce in another place, that the reader made the better judge of them ; however by the way let me ask from whence >>with so much Greek and Latin to follow, I supply the print from the book:<<

<< which signifies Five?


 << to signifie Twelve, from

<< show the Likeness there is between them

<< cause the Celtae still use the Word Gain or Guin

Guin for the same and from thence by the way because the Celtae still use the word Gain or Guin for the same, and from thence by the way Baragoin in that Language, properly signifies a man that speaks ill, because he does not but begin to speak, with asking for Bread and wine, that are the chief necessities of life. For the word Goin signified wine amongst the Gauls; so Bara did Bread,


their present satisfaction do no more than peruse the table annexed to this book, and there they will meet with about a hundred Greek words, which are manifestly borrowed from the Celtic tongue, which is still a living language in some parts of Europe, as is well known to many learned Men.

Those who are so fond of the Greek tongue, and indeed, too, much prejudiced in favor of it, will not fail to say upon this occasion, that the Celtae borrow these words, and many more of it ; and that it is not likely that the Grecians, who were so polite of people, should borrow so much of Barbarians ; but this objection, which is only a specialist one, without any solidity, is easily answered.

In the first place you may see with half an eye that the Celtic Words, which I have produced, are more simple than the Greek ones, seeing most of them are no other than mono-syllables, whereas the other are by-syllables ; and if so, they are not so frequent. It's there for plain enough, that the Greek words have been taken from the Celtic, and not the Celtic them. For it is a general rule almost in all languages, that the longer and larger words are derived from the short and more simple ones. But here comes on a second and decisive answer.

The Greeks toward the Early times of the post dilluvian world, I speak of the days of Abraham, and the other Patriarchs, were for above 300 years together


under The Dominion of the Titans, from whom the Celtae came, for as I have often said already, Uranus, their Prince, Saturn, his son and his grandson, Jupiter, rained over and among the Grecians in those very ancient times. The language of those people, who value themselves so much, had then no manner of politeness in it, then that of The Barbarians, for so they were pleased to call all other nations. But supposing it had been as polite and neat as afterwards it proved, it had been impossible for the Grecians, when they were necessitated to submit to the Yoke of the conquerors, not to receive also, much of their language. For in a word, it has always been experience, that those who have had power enough to make others submit to their Dominion, have at the same time subjected them to their language, at least wise in many respects, as well as to their laws and customs. If you would but call to mind what I have said before of the Spartans and Lacedemonians, you would be convinced that the most famous Grecians assume the customs and manners of the Titans, and there is no doubt then to be made, but that they also adopted the words of their language. The ancient Latins did the same thing, that's before noted, and so the Grecians in doing of this were not singular.

But if not withstanding all these reasons, which seem to be so firm and convincing, there may be some so opinionative as never to believe them, unless they have at least the authority, or rather confession of some learned Greek to back the matter. We shall forthwith Endeavor to give them plenary Satisfac-


-tion in this particular. I hope they will not reject the testimony of a famous man, but one very zealous for the honor of his language, who know all the politeness of it, and loved and cultivated more than any Greek whatsoever. I speak of Plato. This philosopher, as much as he is idolized at his native language was by the very power of Truth forest in one of his books to acknowledge that the Grecians took several words from the barbarians and that even in his Cratylus, which is a dialogue, where any treats on purpose of the etymology of a great many Greek words. It's very well known he had no better success in his understanding than Varro, in what remains we have of his upon the Latin tongue. But that is nothing to the purpose we come now to the confession of this famous Greek, in searching the origin of these two words: {} Ignis & Aqua, i.e. Fire and Water.

He confesses at first he was hard put to it to make a discovery ; and as he could find no footsteps for their origin in the Greek, he was forced to seek it amongst The Barbarians, as knowing the Grecians took a great many words from them. Reor equidem, speaking in the name of Socrates, Multa Nomin Graecos a Barbaris habuisse; and adds, that else it would be to no purpose to seek for the etymology of these words in the Greek tongue. Then he comes to own that the word {} must necessarily have been taken from The Barbarians ; saying, Vide itaq; ne nomen hoc {} Barbaricum sit neque enim facile est istud Graecae linguae


linguae accommodare. At last he confesses it to be Phrygian, whose people pronounced it almost in the same manner as the Grecians. He afterwards add, that it must be so in respect to {} which in his opinion were also taken from the Phrygians, as well as many others. Constatq; says he, ita hoc Phryges nominare, parum quid declinantes, sicut & vocem {Id est, Aqua & canes aliaq; permulta. Plato ingeniously confesses that all that is true; Vere haec sunt. So that there is no room left to doubt it.

Its owned that these three words came from the Barbarians; and though Plato were to have denied it, which he does not, it must for all that be true. But he is mistaken in making them al lthree to be Phrygian, for there is only the word {}, Fire, which is so, and therefore we find it at this day in the Teutonic language. For the Germans say Feur, and some Saxons Far for Fire. As for the other two, {}  They were taken from the Celtic, for the first, by transposing the u comes from dour, which among the Celtae signifies water; and I find some of them anciently said Ydor, that signified the same thing. As for {} Its derived from Cun, Canis, or the plural Coun, Dogs in the Celtic tongue. Plato therefore was not mistaken, in sayig that these three words, and a great many more came from the Barbarians. Had Aristotleís book, which he wrote upon this subject, under the title of Nomina Barbarica, been handed down to our time, we should perhaps


have met with things upon this subject, which we are now utter strangers.

Lastly, why should those who are so much baffled in favour of the Greek tongue, scruple to own that it has been beholden to the Barbarians, since it cannot be denied but that it took its name from then; that is, from Hellenus and his children, the descendants of Deucalion. For the Greeks themselves called their Language no other than {} Lingua Hellinica, and a Grecian among them is not called {}, but {} Hellen; they taking a pride in this name, that they have so carefully adopted of being descended from Hellenus, who was a foreigner, and a Barbarian by descent, as well as his father Decucalion. In the mean time Jamblicus informs us that some authors averred, The Greek, named the Hellinic tongue, came from this Deucalion: Quidam perhebent, says he, Linguam tum Graecanicam, tum etiam AEolicam, Deucalionis Donum esse & Munus. If Deucalion made this present to the Greeks that came after him, those who are prejudice in their favour, have no cause to believe that say, that they have taken nothing from strangers, whom they were to call Barbarians.

Before I close up this chapter concerning the Greeks and their language; I must not forget to observe that they two names they went by anciently, that is, before the time of Hellenus, who affected to have them call Hellenes, were {} Graii, and {} Graeci, as before noted, and that both these signified properly, no more than Veteres, or Antiqui, Old, Ancient. For the


true Greeks were looked upon to be the ancient inhabitants of the country. And I am very much mistaken if the name of Eolians did not imply the same thing, though there may be some difficulty in the explanation of it. But enough of the Affinity between the Greek and Celtic languages, let us know come to that of the Latins.

End chapter 2

Chapter III (3)

Of the ancient Language of the Aborigines, since called Latins.

Before I come to give my thoughts of the language used by the people of Italy, anciently called Aborigines, and afterwards Latins, I shall in the first place premise somewhat concerning the origin of them. Having very sedulously examined whatever the Learned have said upon this account, I have reason to believe that these ancient people came from the Ausones. In short, when Elian, an author well-known, speaks of them, he lets us plainly know that they were the first, and consequently, the most ancient inhabitants of Italy ; his words are these:

says 185 below maybe 195

Satisfaction In this particular. I hope they will not reject the testimony of a famous man, but one very zealous for the honor of his language, who knew all the politeness of it, and loved and cultivated it more than any Greek whatsoever. I speak of Plato. This philosopher, as much as he idolized his native language, was by the very power of Truth forced in one of his books to acknowledge that the Grecians took several words from The Barbarians, even that of his Cratylus, which is a dialogue, wherein he treats on purpose of the etymology of a great many Greek words.

It's very well known he had no better success in his undertaking then Varro, and what remains we have of his upon the Latin tongue. But that is nothing to the purpose, we now come to the confession of his famous Greek, and searching the origin of these two words,

Greek and Latin

He confesses at first, he was hard put to it to make the discovery ; and as he could find no footsteps for their origin in the Greek, he was forced to seek it amongst the Barbarians, as knowing the Grecians took a great many words from them.

and adds, that else it would be to no purpose to seek for the entomology of these words in the Greek tongue. Then he comes to own that the word


Must necessarily have been taken from the Barbarians; saying:


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see, that the Aufones were not only the first People that inhabited Italy, but that they were look'd upon as Indigene, and born in the Country; and though that in Reality is not true, for they came from another Country, however it indicates their great Antiquity, and inclines us to believe that Italy had no Inhabitants before them.

It's certain that when the Oenotrians, a very ancient Colony of Arcadians, came to settle in Italy above Fifteen Hundred Years before our Saviour was born, that the Aufonians had inhabited this fine Country long before. This is what we learn of Nicander, who informs us that these new Comers drove the Ausones out of their Possessions, 


 Pulsisq; Ausonibus, quitum Inhabitabant, ipsi sedes posuerun :

The Ausonians must have been a long time in Italy, and that in great Numbers too, when the Oenotrians came thither from Arcadia, fixing they gave Name to that Sea, which is beyond Italy, called the Ausonian, and afterwards the Tuscan Sea ; and therefore we are not to think it strange, that the Greeks from very ancient times gave Italy the Name of Ausonia with that of Hesperia. The Words of Dionysius Hallicarnalius are to this Effect:

Superiori tempore Greet; Hefperiam aut Aufoniam, cam vocabant : Indigene Saturnian

And we find by the excellent Commentaries of Servius that it had the Name of Ausonia before that of Saturnia : But how could the Grecians in those early Times call it Ausonia, unless it were that they knew it was inhabited by the Ausones.

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Cities. These, who probably were a Merry People, invented Plays, Pleasant Farces, or diverting Comedies, full. of Jests, which by the Romans were called the Atellani Plays or Comedies, Ludi Atellani, or Fabulae Atellani. Livie makes mention of them in the Eighth Book of his History, as well as divers others, and Tacitus calls these Plays, claim Ludicrum,

because they came from the Osci : The Common People of Rome were so fond of them, that they would never suffer them to be put down, though both the Name and the Nation of the Osqui were rooted out, which is a little Strange; hence it is that Strabo had Reason to say, that there happened something extraordinary concerning these Osci, which was, that tho' the Nation was quite lost, yet their Language survived amongst the Romans;

nam cum oft-arum Gens interierit, fermo eorum aloud Romano: refiat;

and the Way that it was preserved, as he insinuates, was no other than by means of these Plays and Comedies.

Now 'tis certain, by what Words we have remaining of the ancient Osci, that the Language of that Nation was no other than Celtick, or very like it, as well as that of the Sabins. It's therefore impossible but that the Celtick Language must by this means be admitted into that of the Romans, and be intermix'd with the Latins, for the strengthening, and


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confirming of which take the following Example, and that in the Word Petorituts, about which the Learned in ancient Times have much contested. Festus, who has it with divers others, says, it signified a Chariot or Cart among the Gauls, and that because it had Four Wheels

Petoritutn GaMaim vthiculum effe,nomen ejus alum exiflimant, a numero quanear rotarum

The same Author adds, what others affirm, that the Word came from the Osci, because among them Petora signified Four,

Alit ofce, quad ii poll; Petoragnat uor vocent.

Lastly, some alledged it to be a Greek Word, but taken from the Eolick Dialect}.

Alii Grace, sed Vitoluxiit thaws : dictum.

These Three Opinions, how seemingly soever they may differ, yet are True ; for the Word might have been anciently Eolick, it might also come from the Osci, but originally from the Celtae, or Gauls, and Festus was just in saying it signified a Chariot with Four Wheels: Thus we find that the Languages of the Osci in Italy, and of the Eolians in Greece, were very like unto that of the Celtae or Gauls : Seeing this Word is derived from those Three Languages, which could not be, if they had not in many things been like one another. Having said so much upon this Occation, there is nothing now remaining, in order to convince the most incredulous, but to take Notice of several Latin Words, that originally came from the Celtick Language, which will confirm all that I have before


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advanced, and make it so very manifest unto us, that Men may judge of it by their Eyes, without using their reasoning Faculty. Varro, who in his Time was looked upon to be the most Learned of the Romans, Wrote several Books of Etymologies, Three of which he dedicated to Cicero' his Friend, who in his Turn gives him such a Character as he justly merited; but we know very well how illy he has succeeded in abundance of Places, notwithstanding his profound Learning, and that he proved to be no more fortunate than Plato, who attempted the fame thing in his own Language : But if these Two great Men had been acquainted with those Languages they called Barbarous, and especially the Celtick & Phrygian, they would have discovered many things they continued ignorant of, and had not entertained us with such wretched Etymologies.

But to return to Varro, amongst other Reasons given by him for the obscurity and difficulty of Etymologies, one is, that the Latins had changed the Signification of many of their Words, of which he gives us an Example in the Word Hostis, which anciently signified an Hoste, which is True, whereas in his Time it imported an Enemy, which he could not comprehend, though it is plain enough to those that have any smattering in the Celtick Tongue : For Hostis among them, without the Change of one Letter, signified an Hoste, as Hostlisez did an Hostess, and a great many Words came from thence


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into our Language ; and so among the ancient Latins; the Word Hostis signified an Hoste, as Varro has well observed, without being able to comprehend the Reafon of it : But as for the Latins that came after, they changed the true and ancient Signification of the Word, and calling a thing quite different by it, contented themselves with the Word Hospes, for an Hoste : But it is worth remarking, that this also is a Celtick Word, for they use Osb or Osp, for an Hoste, and so these Two Words which signifie the fame thing, are derived from the Celtick; and this we meet with in several others, which shows they have not fallen out to be so by Chance. 

Let us come more particularly to the things which can neither be useless nor disagreeable to the Lovers of Antiquities: When Varo endeavours to find out the Origin of the Word Terra, he tells us upon the Authority of Elius, it was so called, quad teritur, because the Earth was beaten or trod under Foot. The Romans undoubtedly, applauded this Notion, which is utterly False, for the Verb tero comes from terra, or rather tera, with a single R. for so the Word was Wrote by the Ancients, and in the Books of the Augurs, according to Varro's own Confession,  tera in Augurum Libras fcripta cum Rano,

from whence comes it then? No Roman ever could tell; it was a Word had from the Celtae, among whom Ter or Tir signified Earth. And as The Earth is trodden under Foot, and as it were bruised,


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from thence came the Tero of the Romans. This Learned Man says afterwards, that Terminus came from Tero, and that the Ancients called it Termen, this is true, tho' Terminus's being derived from Ten, is not : The reason why the Ancients used the Word Termen, was because they found Termen Termin, signified a Term, or Bound in the Celtick Tongue; but it is 'a compound Word, made of Ter Earth, and Men, which in that Language imports a Stone, because that in ancient Times, as well as now-a-Days, great Stones were used for Land Marks: All the Latins and Romans put together, must have puzzled their Heads long enough, before they could so much as have guessed at these Things.

Let us go on and follow Varro, he was just in saying, that Pulmentum, came from Puls, as Plautus did before him, but when he comes to the Etymology of Puls, which the ancient Latins pronounced Pouls, he could not tell what to make of it. The Word was taken Verbatim from the Celtae, who used, and still do, the Word Pouls, to signifie Pulmentum, for in Armorican Bretagne, the People at this Day, by this Word Pouls, mean all Sorts of Pottage or Gruel, and Mill or Millet Broth, they call Pouls Mel : Thus we see plainly, that the Latin Words, Puls and Milium, too, which was the Mel or Mele of the Celtae, have been borrowed of the Gaulish Language: So that the ancient Latins must have Communication with them, let it come which way

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way it would, and hence it was, that the first Romans made use of this Sort of Victuals for many Ages; of which Pliny was not unsensible, when he said,

Puke autem, non Pane vixisse longo tempore Romanos, manifestum:

This fort of Food they had from the Aborigines, as these had it from the Titans or Celtae, or at leastwise they imitated the Sabins and Umbrians, who used it very much: And so it is not to be wondered at that Plautus, that Famous Poet, and a Native of Umbria, in some Places calls himself Pultisagonides, that is, if I mistake not, an eater of Gruel or Hasty-pudding. Besides, it is at this Day a very common and ordinary Food amongst the Commom People in Bretagne, which they had from the ancient Gauls, whose Language and Customs they still retain, as being descended from them. But not to dwell too long upon one Thing, we find the Latins used the Word Coccum, to signifie Scarlet-dye, and the Grain which in ancient Times made it: They took no heed to the Derivation of this Word, no more than of their Hisginum, that imports the same thing ; both which Words are Greek, as well as Latin, and Coccum comes from Coch, which in the Celtick Tongue, signifies Red. It was thus anciently that they called the red Grain, which grew on a kind of Holly-oak (Hous) and was used for the dying of Scarlet. It was from this Word Hous, that Scarlet was called Hysginum, i.e. as much as to say, Sprung and taken from the Hous : If there are any that do not think


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fit to believe me, let them consult the Famous Pausanias, who tells us, that the , Gauls, who were settled in the Upper Phrygia, i.e. Galatia, called those Shrubs, upon which those Red Grains grew {}, Hus of Hous, and that they found certain small Worms thereon, which served to Dye Scarlet : This is that which Tertullian calls Rubor Galaticus, the Red of Galatia, of which Saturn, according to the Account he gives us, had so great a Value.

If these Examples are not enough, in order show, that the Latins had a great many things from the Celtae, we will produce still some more. The Romans did not know from whence the Words Caulis and Brassica were derived: The first came from Caul, which signified a Cabbage among the Celtae, and the other from Bresych, that had the same Import. The Latins did not know the Origin or the Word Pile, which in one of its Significations implies Postis, a Post; and so much did Pile or Piler import in the Celtick Language. Again the Romans could never devise that aurum, should be derived from the Word Aour of the Celtae, that signifies Gold, and Argentum from Argent, [in Modern British Arian] that with them is the Word for Silver.

None amongst them could ever guess, from whence their Ancestors had the Word Cain, signifies Grey Hairs, nor why they used Cossi, to denote Old and Withered Men. But the first of these Comes from Can, that signifies White among the Celtae. And as for the other Word, it's taken from Cos or


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Coz, the Word for Old among the same People. I am sure I should never have done, should I make it my Business to set down all the Nouns and Verbs, which the ancient Latins took from the Celtae or Gauls, since they would amount to above Eleven or Twelve Hundred : I speak with in Compass, as may be show'd in another Place : For I intend this Work only for an Essay.

I cannot but once more mention the Word Petoritum, in Festus; who has endeavoured to Trace the Origin of it. Aulus Gellius laugh'd at a certain Learned Person, who pretended it was a Greek Word, and signified Light Wheels, (Volucres Rotae) that nimbly moved  and bid it ought to be Writ Petorotum, as he had Read it in Valerias Probus. It's certain Gellius had reason to Laugh at the other upon the Two first Accounts, for this Word was neither Greek Originally, nor signified Light Wheels. But as to the Third Point, that Learned Man Paid very well, that, it ought to have been Writ Petorotum, or rather Petorrotum, for the Word was taken from the Gauls, and properly signified a Chariot with Four Wheels. And so it Originally came from Petor, Four, and Rot, which is a Wheel in Celtick. This is so plain, that I find Birotum in our Glossaries, signifies a Chariot with Two Wheels. Besides Varro, according to the Confession of Aulus Gellius, owns that Petoritum was a Gaulish Word, verbum Gallicum. He might have bid the same thing of Lancea, which he says after-


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wards was a Lance or Javelin, which Word properly came from Lanza, that in Gaulish, signified to Dart or Throw from whence we must conclude, that if this Word came from the ancient Spaniards, as Varro would. have it, it must come from no other than those called Celtiberi, or the Celt; that settled in Spain. It's very plain from these Two Examples, that by the Knowledge of The Celtick or Gaulifh Tongue, which was taken to be so Barbarous, a Man may make sound Judgment as well of the Origin, as of the Signification of a great many Latin Words, about which the most Learned Romans were in doubt, and only made Guess-work of it.

And since now we have happened to Talk of the Romans, it's well known they were called Curetes or Quirites, and hardly any otherwise in their own Histories. It's agree'd they never had this Name till after their Incorporation with the Sabine, and as these last came from the City of Cures, which was then their Capital, it was resolved by the Articles made between them, that both the Nations should go by one and the fame common Name of Curites or Quirites, which Name was derived from the Word Curis, that in the Sabine Language signified a Lance ; and this made Festus say, Curis est Sabine hasta; and because Romulus wore one, perhaps inslead of a Scepter, according to the Custom of Kings of Old, they gave him the Name of Quirinus, as the same Author informs us. Unde Romulus Quirinus  quia eam ferebat, dictus est.  There


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are Learned Men enough of this Opinion, that Curis among the Sabins signified a Lance ; but if you were to ask the Romans, why they called it so, there would be none of them able to answer you.

Moreover, this Word is Originally Celtick, from whom the Sabin had it; for in the Celtick Tongue Curo, from which the Greeks have formed their {}, is the fame as Pusatio, to beat one thing against another. And Curis the fame as Pulsatio, which signifies Beating or Knocking one thing againft another. It was from this Cur of the Celtae or Titans, came the Curis of the Sabines; because their Curetes or Salians that carried a Lance, were wont to Strike their Bucklers, when they danced and skipped about. All the Ancients Vouch for this; and for your fuller Satisfaction, you need no more than peruse what I have already said of the Curetes, who took their Name from it and what Dionysius Hallicarnassus has of it in the Second Book of his Antiquities. But now a Word or Two of the Salians, concerning whom, Varro and others after him, says, they were so called, because they jumped and danced about with their Lances and Bucklers:

Salii a saltando, says Varro, and Festus is positive, they took their Name. from thence,  Salle: a faliendo faltando differ, dubitari non de et:   So,that there needs no disputing of it; but they did not know that the Word Salio, to Leap, and from which the Salians had their Name, was derived from Sailla, that signified the


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same thing in Celtick, and hence came the French Word Tressailler, to Startle.

Before we have done with the Origin and Etymology of Latin Words, taken from Foreign Languages, we must not omit observing one Remarkable Thing in this Place: You know, and we have made it out, that the Language of the Aborigines and ancient Latins came from the Greek, and especially from the Eolick  Dialect, and yet none of the Greek Names of the Seven Planets, nor of the Days of the Week obtained among the Romans. So that the Latin Names of them are altogether different from those used by the Grecians ; and how came that about, unless it were that the ancient Latins had them from the Titans and Cate, which we shall clear up before we go any further.

The First Day of the Week is called Dies Solis, and the Celtae call it Diesul, to denote the Day of the Sun. It's plain Di with them was Day, and that from thence came the Dies of the Romans; farther it is manifest that their Sol has also been taken from the Celtick Sul or Soul, which is very near the fame Name the Sabins gave the Sun. For it is Nonsence to think, with the Romans, that Sol was derived of Solus. By the Way, let me take Notice of the Word Soul, that the Armorican Bretons have a certain peculiar Game or Exercise, which they call Soule ; they Throw a kind of a Ball, made of Black Leather, stuffed with Hay or Straw into the Air, and when it's


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falling, they lift their Hands to receive it, and use their utmost Efforts to catch it, and carry it to the Goal, which is a great Piece of Bravado amongst the Peasant. I do not doubt but this round Ball, called Soule, was invented by the ancient Gauls, in Honour of the Sun, which they called Soul, and that for that Reason they threw it into the Air. It's in our Days no more than a simple bodily Exercise, like those of running or wrestling. We have reason to believe the ancient Greeks, were not unacquainted with this Game, and that their {was much like it, as well as their {}.  Tho' they afterwards made some Alteration in the last. But let us return again to our Subject.

Dies Lune is the second Day of the Week in Latin, which was plainly taken from the Di-lun of the Celtae, which is our Monday: We may say the same of the rest; the Word Lun, which signifies the Moon, and of which the Romans or Latins made Luna, seems to have been taken from the Celtick Leun, Full. For they reverenced the Planets more particularly the Moon, when at the Full, and then it was that they regulated most of their Affairs and Enterprizes; or else the Word might come from Lun, in Latin, Effigies, because the Full Moon Seems to represent a Face.

Let us come now to the third Day, in Latin, Dies Martis, which was made from Di-Meurs or Di-Mers of the Celtae, and what we call Tuesday: It's very certain these People in ancient Times pronounced it


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somewhat like the Sabines, of which the Osci, who, as I have said elsewhere, were a kind of Celtic, made Mamers, i. e. my Mars: Because he was the God of that Nation, who delighted in War ; and the Year anciently was begun by the Latins with the Month of March.

As for Wednesday, in Latin, Dies Mercurii, the Day of Mercury, it's very obvious, they took it from the Di-Mercher of the Gauls. They venerated him as the God of Commerce and Trade, as I have show'd before, in the Explanation I have given of his Name, which made Festus Pompeius say,   Mercurius a mercibus est Dictus; nine enin; negatiorum omnium exiflimabant effe Deurn.

You may see what I have said above concerning this pretended Deity.

The fifth Day, or Thursday, in Latin, Dies Jovis, they had from the Celtick which some of them have softned into Dir. Jou, by which they mean the Day of Jupiter. For the true Name of this imaginary Deity was Jou, from which they made Jovis, as I have already made out in speaking of his Reign, and great Actions. Wherefore Jovis is not derived from Jehovah, as our Hebraicians pretend.

As to the sixth Day of the Week, and the Dies Veneris of the Romans, it cannot be denied but that it came from the Di-Guener or Di-Wener, as they sometimes pronounce it, of the Celte : For they say Seren-Wener, to signifie the Star of Venus. As for the Celtick Word Guener, it is derived from Guen; White or Fair, and so Guener, from


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whence they made the Latin Word Venus, as appears by Veneris, its Genitive Case, properly signifies a White or Fair Person

Lastly, The seventh and last Day of the Week, called in Latin, Dies Saturni, came from the Celtick Di Sadorn, the Day of Saturn. Who is there that can deny, but that the Saturnus of the Latins was taken from the Sadorn or Satarn of the Celtae? The Word signifying strong, valiant and warlike ; and it seems to have been derived of Dorn, the Pugnus of the Romans. For as from the Verb Pugnare comes their Pugnus, so the Gaulish Dorn does from Dorna or Dourna, to beat; and so Sadorn upon the whole signifies, as much as to say, one strong in Battle; so that it is in vain that several learned Men endeavour to find the Origin of this Word in the Hebrew, it being certainly derived from the Celtick, as well as all the rest.

Having in this manner produced so many instances, wherein there is nothing strained or forced, but everything natural and clear, will any deny that the Latin hath borrowed many Things from the Gaulish or Celtick Language? It cannot well be, and it would be an easier Matter to produce more Examples, and in such Numbers, that it would be hard for all the Wit of Man to withstand them. But I have Reason to believe that what has been already offered is sufficient. But if that will not do altogether, let them peruse the Catalogue of Celtick and Latin Words put together at the latter end of this Book, and I hope that when they


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Have done so, all manner of Doubt or Scruple will be entirely removed from them.

<<< End of Chapter III (3)

>>>  Chapter 4 begins on the same page and continues below

Chap. 4          Of the true Origin of the Teutones or Germans.
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If we should here recount what the ancient  Greeks have writ concerning those Famous People that live in the Countries beyond the Rhine, and about the Danube, called now Germany, we should meet with but a very dark and confused Idea of them. I say confused, and use the Word on Purpose, because it looks as if they took delight in confounding Two Nations, which in their Origin are, and always have been very different, thoí otherwise like enough to one another in their Customs and Manners. It is perhaps from hence, or rather out of pure Ignorance, that the ancient Grecians, I speak of, continually confound together the Celtae and the Teutons, for that is the true Name of those People the French call Allemans:, the Romans Germani, as appears by all their Histories, and we from them Germans.

These Greeks, who have been so much celebrated, by reason of their Ability, in speaking and writing well, yet have not been able to see into the Antiquity and Origin of Nations, especially of those lying to the



Northward; and as the Germans came within that Number, they gave them in ancient Greece no other Name than Scythians, or Hyperborean; and in Process of Time that of Celtae or Celtoscythe. And at last when they came to be a little acquainted with them, they called them no otherwise than Celtae {}; and by this Name they were known to the Greeks, till the time of the Caesar, and of the Roman Empire. It's therefore plain that the Grecians have confounded the Gauls or Celtae, with the Teutones that lived beyond the Rhine; for so they called themselves, whereas the Romans gave them the Name of Germans, as before noted. No Body ought to wonder at my writing at this rate, for I follow the Opinion of Strabo, who confirms the Romans were the first that called these People Germans; who were Neighbours to the CeItae and lived beyond the Rhine. These are the Words of that Famous Geographer,

Statim trans Rhenum, post Celticos Populos, {}, Orientem versus sita loca Germani Incolun, : {} {}

Here you find this Learned and Accurate Author distinguishing nicely between the Celtae that are in Gaul, and the Germans towards the East, beyond the Rhine. These he calls {}, Germans, and says the Romans gave them that Name, which in their Language signifies Brethren, as if the Germans were the Brethren of the Gauls, by reason of the Likeness there was between them in many Things. Sed & sorma, says the fame Strabo, & Moribus &






Victu Celtis seu Gallis sunt similes.

Then he adds;

Reite itaq; mehi videntur,{}, Romani hoc nomen eis impossuisse, cum eos fratres: Gallorum vellant ostendere. Romani etiam sua lingua geminos fratres vocant Germanos.

Hence it was that the Teutones had the Name of Germans, which is a Foreign Word, and never adopted by them, they always reserving that of Theutons or Teutons, their Favourite Name, and which in their own Language they pronounce Duystchen and Deutschen, or Teutschen, according to their different Dialects, and might be rendered Tuytscones, or Teutisci. This Name, which indeed is very singular, seems to have come from Mercury, whom the Ancients called Theuth or Teuth; For this pretended Deity was had in great Veneration among the Germans, as well as the Celtae, which made Tacitus, in speaking of the Germans, say,

Deorum Maximo Mercurium Colunt. If they worshipped him more particularly than other Deities, this proceeded as well from a Point of thankful Acknowledgement, as from a Spirit of Religion; for it is likely it was this Son and Successor of the great Jupiter, who reigned in Italy and the West, as I have observed elsewhere, that sent Colonies into Germany, or instituted Laws amongst them for the better Governance of the People, and softning in some Measure their Fierce and Barbarous Natures. And so all that Cluverius Pays of him, whom he makes to be Adam, or the first Man, is not to be endured, especially in so



Learned a Man as he was. Let us now come then to the true Origin of these ancient and famous People; for what I have hitherto said extends no farther than to the different Names, which they had, or were given them. Tacitus, in speaking of these People, whom he calls Germans, and whore Customs and Manners, he has so well described, shows us plainly, that he is inclined to believe they were Indigenes, that is, born in the Country from all Antiquity, without any Transmigrations at all, or a Mixture with Foreigners.

Ipsos Germanos Indigenes Crediderim, minimeq; aliarum Gentium Adventibus, hofpitiis mixtos.

Tacitus, tho' otherwise a very exact and judicious Author, in writing at this Rate, is strangely mistaken; for this is no other than to make the Germans spring up out of the Earth like Pumpkins. He fays a great deal in a few Words, but it is certain there is nothing of Truth in it, nor anything like it, After, which he adds, that it was scarce credible they should abandon Asia, Africa or Italy, to go and settle in Germany, which he says, is a rugged, frightful, and inhospitable Country: It's like it might be such in the time of Tacitus, but it has since very much changed Face. At last, he concludes that it is no strange thing that Germany should be the Country and Native Place, or rather the Cradle of those that dwelt there, from the early Ages of the World. But he is mistaken in that also, as you shall quickly see. All the West, properly speaking, had no such People as Indigenes, I mean, born originally



there, without being brought from fame other Place. This Prerogative belongs only to the East, so that it may be said that Asia was the Cradle of humane Race, and their Original Country: It was from thence those Swarms came, which filled Germany, and the other Western and Northern Countries, and here you must know that the Hebrews, at leastwise, the Modern Jews, believe that the Germans owe their Origin to him, who in Scripture is called Askenez, who was the Son of Gomer, and consequently the Grandson of Japhet. And hence it is that when they Speak of the Teutons or Germans, they call them Alkenazim in their Language, as supposing them to be the Posterity of Askenez: What they say may be true, tho' not in the Sense they take it; For they fancy this Grandson of Japhet came out of Asia into the West, fixed his Residence in Germany, and peopled the Country with his Posterity; But herein they are mistaken, for allowing him to be the Father of the Germans, it was not because he came into these Northern Parts of Europe, but as he was the true Stem of the Phrygians of the Lesser Asia, from whom the Teutons had their Origin. For the better Understanding of this, we are to remind you of what I said before concerning Gomer, the eldest Son of Japhet. I have produced good Authority that he settled in the early Times of the Postdiluvian World in the Upper Asia towards Bactriana and the Countries adjoining to the Caspian Sea; and that from him in Process



of Time came the Celtae or Gauls: Moses in the tenth of Genesis says, That this Gomer whom Josephus makes to be the Father or Origin of the Gauls, had Three Sons, the eldest of whom was called Askenez, of whom I am now speaking. And this Person, pursuant to the Authority of the Scriptures, and ancient Records, may very well be supposed to be the Father and Founder of the Phrygians: And the most learned Commentators do agree, that when God speaks by the Mouth of the Prophet Jeremiah speaks to the People, that thereby Askenez is meant Phrygia and the Phrygians : But perhaps it's not known that by Meani, the Lesser Armenia is Understood, which makes Part of Cappadocia, and by that of Ararat, the Greater Armenia, as I shall show in some other Place. If by Askenez, in Jeremy, Phrygia is intended, of which there is scarce any room to doubt, Ashkenazim signifies properly the Phrygians, and not the Germans, as the Jews would have it.

However, what they say in one Sense is true, for I take it for granted that the Teutones, at least in Part, have had their Origin from the Phrygians, and that they were Colonies of those ancient People. There are several Reasons to induce us to believe this, but none in my Mind so strong as the Conformity there was anciently between the Languages of both Nations, and here we Will produce some Examples, with which ancient Authors supply us. That taken from the Word GREEK, or rather Bec, is become ve-



ry famous from what Herodotus says the Second Book of his History; It's certain, according to this Author, that Bec, is the Phrygian Tongue signified Bread, and it does also the same in the German Language ; for tho' the Germans do not make use of this Word singly to denote Bread, they do, however, in compound Words, and therefore they commonly say Backer and Becker, according to the Variety of Dialects amongst them, for a Baker or Bread-maker : Becker is a Word compounded of Bec, Bread in the Phrygian Tongue and Er, a Man, which is much the fame as the Ur of the Celtae: So that Becker with them signifies. Word for Word, a Man of Bread, that is, one that makes Bread, and hence they say Backen for Baking of Bread.

The next Example we than take out of Plato, who in his Cratylus Asserts, that {} We, which should be pronounced Pur, signified fire among the Phrygians, from whom the Graecians took this Word, as well as several others, aliaq; permulta; and then he adds concerning it,

Constat ita hoc Phrygos nominare, parum quid declinantes.

Now the Germans at this Day say Fur or Feur for Fire, which they took from the Phrygians by a little Variety in the Pronunciation, Parum quid declinantes. Moreover,the Phrygians said Soccus or Soc to denote a Sandal or Sock, and at this Day they do in Germany use Socke for the fame Sort of thing. We see Plato ingeniously confesses, that the Grecians took the Word {GREEK}, from the Phry



gians, with many others, Aliaq; permulta. From hence we have Reason to believe, that the Words GREEK and GREEK, Father and Mother come also from the Phrygian, for we find them to be almost the same in the Teutonic and Persian, which is a solid Argument that they came not originally from the Greeks, no more than many others, amongst which we may reckon GREEK, Filia, which was taken from the Phrygians, and hence the Germans say Tochter or Dochter, and the English, Daughter. We could produce many other Examples, but I cannot omit these that follow : The Word GREEK in Aristophanes is taken from the Barbarians, according to the Confession of his Scholiast, who could not tell the right Signification of it, for it does not mean Audere, as he fancies, but Rixari and Litigare, and even now among the Danes, who are a German People, Trette is the same as Litigare, GREEK., whch signifies Infra or Inferius, came in like manner from the Barbarians, I mean, the Phrygians; for the Germans say to this Day en Ereth, for in Terra, which is the same as Inferius. I shall add the Word GREEK, which signifies Quod Comedi potest, Everything that is edible. The Germans call Bread Broot or Brot, which they took from the Phrygians, as well as the Greeks,who had also GREEK, Comestor, from thence. But supposing we could not have been able to produce any of these Examples the Word GREEK, is sufficient to induce us to believe that the Phrygian Tongue is like unto the German. Every



body knows, the Trojans were Phrygians by Descent, and that Pergamus was the true Name of the Cittadel of Troy; and if any seems to question it, they need no more than read Virgil, who after Homer, often calls it Pergama, hoc eft Arcem Ilii, says Servius in his Commentaries, and the same is confirmed by Hysychius in these Words, GREEK GREEK,

Pergamus Arx summa But why must: this Fortress be called Pergamus, unless it were from the Situation of it. It's therefore very probable that if we cut off the Greek Termination of the Word, that the Phrygians said Pergbam, A mountainous Dwelling or Habitation. The Modern Germans at this Day use Berg, which is the same as Perg for a Mountain, and Ham for an Habitation or Dwelling. In short, before Troy was built, this Cittadel or Fortress was the first Dwelling place there: And here by the Way let us add one Remark, that it was from a Cittadel, situate like this upon a Mountain , that the Famous City of Pergamus took its Name. We know that the Kings of the Attalan Race resided there, and that it was a Famous Place in those Days. Urbs illustiris, fays Strabo, sub Attalicis Regibus : But this Name, properly speaking, was common among no other than the Phrygians and Germans, as appears by King Attalus, Prince of the Teutonick Marcomans, of whom Aurelius Victor speaks in the Life of Gallienus : Attallus imports the same thing as Darius did among the Persians, viz. Coercitor; for Attal in the ancient Language of the Barbarians, signified



Coercere..All these Examples show plainly that the Teutonic, Language did much referable the Phrygian, and that came to pass no other Way than that the Germans were a Colony of the Phrygians. But tho' all I have said upon this Occasion seems to carry a Face of Truth with it, yet it must not be imagined that Germany was peopled only by Phrygians: It received some Colonies, which seemed to have come from the Higher Asia, and the Countries near the Caspian Sea, in which there is nothing any more strange, than to find that the People, who overspread Gaul, came from the Countries of Hircania and Bactriana. I am therefore of Opinion that those who were anciently, called Daes or Dahes, and by the Greeks GREEK or GREEK, and the Romans Dai, or rather Daae or Dahae sent also Colonies Into Germany. These Daae are famous enough in ancient Historians and Geographers, we have some reason to believe that their first Settlements might be towards Hircania and Margiana, and so we find Ptolomy, who has given us the best and surest Account of Asia, places them with the Parni and Massagete in Margiana.

For after he had spoken of the Derbices, that lived near the Oxus, a little to the North, he says, Below these are these Massagete, that is, towards the South, near unto them are the Parni, and then the Daae GREEK Near unto them are the Desarts of Margiana. It's manifest from what Ptolomy fays, that the Daae were Neighbours to the ancient Comarians, the Descendants of Gomer, from whom came the



Celtae or Gauls : The Reason why these People must have been Neighbours, I shall here subjoin. I have said before that Gomer, who was Japhet's eldest Son, had Three Sons the eldest of whom was called Askenez, who, we may Well suppose, in the forepart of his Life, dwelt with his Father in the Higher and did not go to settle in Phrygia till after his Decease, the Confusion of Languages, and the Dispersion of the People. Seeing therefore this first Settlement must have been towards Hircania and Margiana, its likely, that several of his Sons and Descendants, must have continued in these Provinces of the Higher Asia, were Neighbours to the Gomarians, and perhaps intermixed with them. Now I have many Reasons to induce me to believe that the Daae, were the Descendants or Posterity of Ashkenez ; and as he was the Son of Gomer, the Father of the Celtae, it's no strange thing that the Teutons, the Posterity of Askenez, should be so like unto the Celtae; so that we fay, the Likeness and Conformity that there was between these Two Nations, proceeded from the first Origin of them. Hence it was undoubtedly, that they always called Brothers, and that the Romans gave the Teutons the Name of Germans. Besides, as Askenez was the Father of the Daae in Higher Asia, before he became the Founder of the Phrygians, in the Lesser Asia, it's no strange thing to imagine, that these Two Nations had the same Language, or at least were alike in many Respects. It was Necessary we should



say thus much about the Origin of the Daae, before we came to their Descendants. I have already made out from the Authority of Ptolomy, that the Daae anciently lived towards the South of Margiana, near the Sands or Deserts of that Province; so that they were near Neighbours to the Medes, and yet nearer to the Parthians, from whom they were separated by nothing else but these Sandy Deserts, and a Ridge of' high Mountains; and here its proper to observe, that the Word Da signifies Good in the Celtick, and it's easy to imagine that Dai and Daae were derived from it, and that this Name was given them in the early Ages of the World, by the Celtae or Gomarians , who were their Brethren and Neighbours. There came many Nations in Process of Time from these Daae, and among others the Parni and Aparni; the Getae, otherwife called Massagetae, the Syebi or Suebi, and the Sassons or Saxons. For I do not reckon the Taparoans, Anarians, Asiotes, and Alani, who perhaps came also from this Nation of the Daae, or at lead were much akin to it. But as the People that fixed in Europe are, properly speaking Colonies of the Asiaticks, may we not believe that the GREEK, Suebi of Ptolemy were the Fathers of the Suevians, or the Suevi of the Romans, a famous People in High Germany. Again, it is a thing that can scarce well be contend, but that from the GREEK of Ptolemy, came the Sassons or Saxons, another famous People of the Lower Germany. The same thing



may be said of the Getae, GREEK, which were surnamed Massagete, that is, Nomadan, or victorious Gete. I am of the Opinion that the Grecians, who afterwards settled in Thrace, and the Neighbouring Countries, were descended from them. The Word Gete, according to some Authors, signifies a Giant, or else it is the same as that of Got or Goth, which is Good in the German Tongue. And so there are many ancient Authors apt to believe that the Goths were the same as the Getae, or had their Origin from them; and indeed, all Things considered, this seems to be really so, for which many Reasons might be given: But we cannot stay here to produce them. If all the Nations of the North Part of Asia have sent Swarms of People, or rather numerous Colonies into Germany, are not we to believe the same of the Daae; from whom the Germans were descended ? It's certain from the Testimony of Historians, that these Daae did not all dwell in Higher Alia, no more than the Comarians, who had the Name of Sacae ; We find clearly that many of them paired into Europe by the Way of the Northern Countries, and that they settled beyond the Ister or Danube, towards those vast Regions, now called Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia, from whence they advanced into Germany; but after their coming to settle in Europe, they changed their Name with their Habitation, and whereas before they were called GREEK or Daae, they took the Name of Daci, GREEK, being the same, whom we, after the Romans, call



Dacians: But if we believe Stephen of Bizantium, the Grecians gave them the Name of Daae, which was their ancient and right Name: GREEK Daci, quos appellamus Daos Yet finding that Word hard to be pronounced, they altered it in their Comedies, into that of GREEK Davi.

I desire it may be noted, that when Strabo speaks of the Getae, that settled in Europe, he gives us sufficiently to understand, that they are the same as the Daci, only with this difference, that those who Dwelt towards Thrace, and the Euxine Sea, were called Get:, Friar, the Name the Greeks gave them; whereas the others that lived towards Germany, and the Source of the Danube, were called Dacae,  GREEK; and this Name the Romans retained. Moreover he owns, that these Two People had the same Language: Getae, GREEK Getae, says he, GREEK, Eadem cum Dais utuntur Lingua. Both are true, but he is mistaken, when he says, that GREEK, or Davi, a Name which the Athenians gave their Slaves, came from the European Dacians, and not from the Daes of Hircania, and the Caspian Sea. For we do not find that the Grecians had any Slaves called Davi, till after Alexander the Great Conquered Persia, and subdued the People of the Higher Asia ; there we find a People called Daae, or Dahes, reckoned among those that submitted to him. From thence it was that the Greeks had those Slaves, which they called Davi and hence it comes



to pass, as Salmatius has very well observed, that this Word is not to be met with anywhere, but in the latter Comedies which were Writ after the Conquests of Alexander the Great. It's therefore very plain, that the vast Country called at this Day Germany, was Peopled not only by the Phrygians of the Lesser Ara, but also by the Da; or Dad, from the Higher Asia, and the Countries adjoining to the Caspian Sea, and Bactriana: But Germany besides these Colonies, which were very considerable, had also some Thracian ones, as it might easily be made to appear by the Conformity there was between the Customs and Manners of these Warlike People, and the Teutones or Germans, and especially by that of their Language, which seemed to be like one another in many Respects; to say nothing that we find by ancient History, that the Thracians had almost always mixed with the Phrygians, from whom came the Teutones as aforesaid But not withstanding all that has been said, it's most certain, that there was no Nation that sent larger or more frequent Colonies into Germany, than the Celtae or Gauls, their Neighbours. Caesar seems to have been of this Opinion by what he says in his Commentaries; viz. that there was a Time when the Gauls excelled the Germans in Strength and Courage, and made continual War upon them, insomuch that they then sent Colonies beyond the Rhine,  Ac Trans Rhenum Colonies mittebant either because of their Numerousness, or by Rea-



son they had not Land enough wherewith to Subsist so many People. The Time that Caesar speaks of; was about that of the Fiat Kings of. Rome; For we find by Livy, that about Six Hundred Years, before our Saviour came, into the World, when Tarquin, the Elder, was King, that Ambigatus, Prince of the Bituriges, or the People of Berry, who then ruled over the Celtae, finding Gaul super abound with People, sent his Sister's Son, Sigovesus into Germany with a numerous Colony, to find out new Settlements there. And at the same Time, Belovesus, his other Nephew, went with numerous Forces into Italy. As to Sigovesus, after he had consulted the Augurs, he resolved to pass the Rhine, and venturing into those New Territories, he stopped there, and fixed his Residence in the Hercinian Forest, which in those Days was vastly large. We find among the People, lead by this Young Prince thither, the Senones, by some ancient Authors, called Semnones; it's very likely, they were the People, that in process of Time, intermixed with the Suevi; and that by this junction, the latter became the most Potent People of all Germany; and so when Tacitus mentions these Senones, or Semnones, he says, Vetustissimos se, nobilissimosaq; Saevorum, Semnones memorant. But besides these People lead into Germany by Sigovesus, there were others called Boii, who quitting the Territories about Bourdeaux, went also into Germany; and possessed themselves of the Country, which, according to their Name,



is called Bohemia, in Latin Boiohemum, being as much as the Dwelling or Habitation of the Boii They were afterwards driven-from thence by the Marcomans, upon which they moved towards the Danube, and having afterwards crossed that River, they at length fixed in that Country, which from them was named Boiovaria, or the Country of the Boii, which is the same that we now call Bavaria.

To these People we may also add the Helvetians, who were True Gauls, and are the Swiss of our Time: These also passed the Rhine, near unto which they Dwelt, entered Germany, and fixed themselves there. It's generally believed that they afterwards incorporated with the Quadi. Caesar in his Commentaries, speaks also of the Volcae & Tectosagi, who were those that Dwelt about Tholouse. These People having in like manner passed into Germany, settled, in a Part of the Hercinian Forest, towards the Neckar. It may very well be supposed, that there were several other Celtick Colonies planted in that Country, an Account whereof, has not been transmitted down to our Time. But it was long before all this, that the Cimbri, a true Celtick People, who came either from the Cimmerian Bosphorus, or perhaps from Upper Asia, possessed themselves of a great part of the Lower Germany ; and after several Removes and Agitations, they at last fixed, at least a part of them, in the Penisula, now called Jutland, which from them had the Name of the Cimbrick Chersonesus; From all which



Colonies put together, it is very plain, that Germany was anciently overrun with the Celtae or Gauls; and this undoubtedly was the Reason, that the Grecians, at least to the Time of the Roman Caesars, always confounded the Teutones or Germans with the Celtae, though they were different Nations in their Origin.

<<< Chap. IV (4) ends


CHAP. V.(5) That the Teutonick Language hath borrowed much from the Celtick.

If we do but attentively observe the Antiquity, extensiveness and other peculiar Qualifications of the Teutonick Language, which is that of the Germans, we may easily be brought to believe it is an Original Language. But we shall be fully convinced of it, if we do but search into its Rise, and ascend to the first Origin of it. It's plain from the little that has been Paid concerning Askenez, his being the Father both, of the Daae and Phrygians, from whom the Teutons were descended, that this Nation, as well as the Language that is peculiar to it, must be very ancient ; and if at the same Time we resume the Idea, that this Askenez was the Son of Gomer, and the Grandson of Japhet, we may be easily brought to believe, that this its Antiquity mounts up as high as the Con-



fusion of Languages, and the Dispersion of Mankind over all the Earth.

As therefore the Language, which Gomer, who was the Father of the Celtae, left his Posterity, was an Original Language, made in the Time of the Confusion at Babel, some Ages after the Deluge we must say and think the same thing concerning that of Askenez, who was the Father of the Germans, which he left to his Descendants. And this without doubt is the Reason, why Moses took so much Care to mention these Two Men in their tenth of Genesis; they being the Fathers and Founders of Two of the most Famous and Potent Nations that came from Japhet, Noah's Eldest Son.

Now in viewing the Origin of these Two Powerful Nations, the Conformity between their Languages, may easily be discovered. For the Celtae descending from Gomer, and the Germans from Askenez, his Eldest Son, its no difficult thing to imagine, that the Language of these Two Nations, who had in a manner the same Origin, must be in some Sort like to one another. But that which is strange is, that the more Remote we are from this first Origin, the more we discover the Reasons which prove, that there was great Affinity between the Language of these Two People; and here we are to call again to Mind what I. have said before, that the Princes, who ruled over the Titans, fixed themselves in Phrygia, about the Time of Abraham, where they continued above. Two Hundred Years, by



which means the Titans, the Fathers of the Celtae, were a long Time mixed and confounded with the Phrygians, from whom the Teutones were descended. Things being so, is it possible, that the Language of the Titans did not mix with the Phrygians ? And this mixture must be sensibly found in the Languages of the Two Nations, that in process of Time descended from them, of which, take the following Example out of Plato, of whom there can be no suspicion in the Case. I have indeed cited the same before but I cannot omit doing it once more, it being so well to the Purpose. That Philosopher says in his Cratylas, wherein he inquires into the Origin of many Greek Words, that the Grecians had borrowed many things of the Barbarians, and more especially of the Phrygians. He assures us, that it was from them they borrowed the Word GREEK [fire], which in Greek, signified Fire ; and that the Words  GREEK Aqua, and GREEK Canes, came also from the same People : As to the Two last Words, Plato is mistaken, for they are Celtick, as I have showed elsewhere. But for the first, he was right in saying they had it from the Phrygians, and thence it is, that it is found still in the German Language, that came from the Phrygian: This Example shows plainly enough, that the Language of the Tudor was anciently intermixed with the Phrygian, and that this mixture may still be discerned by the help of the Celtick and Teutonick.



The Princes who ruled over the Titans, not only resided a long Time in the Country of Phrygia, but having by their Conduct and Valour made themselves Masters of all Europe, they were obliged to undertake several Warlike Expeditions, for the better forming their New Conquests, wherein could they make use of any People to better Purpose, than the Phrygians, who were their Subjects, and had then, as it were, incorporated with the Titans, or Celtae. These Enterprises, together with the many Settlements made by these Titan Princes in those Days, in Greece, Italy, and even in Spain, Gaul, Germany, could not be brought about, without the Phrygians having some Share therein. And is there not Room enough to believe, that it was chiefly in those Times, that People began to settle their Colonies in those vadt Countries, lying between the Rhine, the Danube, the Ocean and Baltic Sea? All this could not be done, without making use of them, and of the Titans. Insomuch that these things make strongly, for the Phrygians having always been intermix'd with the Celtae. And could this continual intermixture fall out without their Language did the same But seeing we can know but very little of these things by reason of their great Antiquity ; let us cast our Eyes upon the numerous and frequent Colonies, which the Gauls at several times sent into divers Parts of Germany, which will easily induce us to believe, that the Celtae left a great deal of their Language in that Country. I have



showed already, that the Bituriges, Senones, or Semnones, about Six hundred Years before our Saviour's Time, passed the Rhine, and went to settle in those vast Provinces; that after them the Boii seized upon that Territory, which from them was named Bohemia, and that from thence they passed into the Country of Bavaria ; that the Helvetians quitting their Lakes and Mountains, went to Dwell in those Parts, which were afterwards possessed by the Quodi. And lastly, that the Volci and Tectosagi, forsaking Gaul, went and settled in that Part of the Hercinian Forest, adjoining to the Neckar.

By these numerous Colonies, to say nothing of those of the Cimbri, which were more ancient, the Celts, filled, and as it were overflowed, all Germany, and mixt and incorporated with the Teutones : It cannot be denied, but that this Union, Converse, or rather Incorporating of Two Nations, must necessarily make a mixture, and Incorporation of Languages ; and this is the true Reason, why the Teutonick Language was anciently full of Celtick, or Gaulish Words, as indeed it is to this Day : If I am not worthy of Belief, you'll find it clearly made out by the Learned Cluverius, in the 5. 6, 7, and 8. Chapters of the First Book of his Ancient Germany, and if that be not enough, I refer you to the Catalogue of Celtick and Teutonick Words, annexed to the end of this Work, for your better Satisfaction.



CHAP.VI.(6)     That the Persian Language hath borrowed much of the Teutonick.

Some may perhaps imagine, that I take Delight in amusing the World, when I offer to say, that the Persian Tongue, even such as it is at this Day, has much of the Teutonick in it; and they may readily ask me; what Union, Commerce, or Resemblance, can there be between the Persians that are in the East, and as it were in the midst of Asia, and the Germans, who are in a Remote Part of Europe, towards the West and North ? If there is no Affinity or Resemblance between these Two Nations, that are so Remote from one another, and so different in their Customs and Manners, how can there be any likeness between their Language ? It's idle, say they, to Write, that the Persian bath taken a great deal from the Teutonick. Language ; and why not on the contrary, has not the Teutonick borrowed, rather of the Persian, whatever Words seem to be like one another in their Languages ? These are plausible Objections that will easily go down with People, and I confess I was my self struck with them, before I had strictly examined Matters : but I am now of another Opinion.



That which at last a little undeceived me, was the Testimony of very Learned Men in the Two last Centuries, such as Justus, Lipsius, Scaliger, Casaubon, Salmasius , and many others, who all own there are a great many Teutonick. Words in the Persian Tongue, and such as could not creep into it Fortuitously, or by Chance. For a Proof of which, take the following Examples.

The Germans in their Language say, Vater, the Persians, Pader, or Bader, for Father.

The Germans use Maeder, the Persians, Mader, for Mother.

Broeder is the German Word, and Brader the Persian, for Brother.

The Germans say Dochter, and the Persian; Dochter, for a Daughter.

These Words which are so very like in both Languages, could not happen by Chance, because they were found anciently with very little Variation in the Greek Tongue, and especially the Eolick Dialect.

The Germans use the Word Band, which with us signifies much the same, and the Persian, Bend.

What we call a Barber, the Germans Name Barbier, and the Persians, Berber.

Kennep, in the German Tongue, signifies Hemp, and the same is Cannab in Persian; the Germans say Donder, or Tonder, for our Thunder, and the Persian Word is Tounder.

I shall enumerate no more Persian Words, which are almost like those, that are found in the German Language. The likeness of Words in them, and several other



things wherein they do agree, have amazed many Learned Men, who yet have not been able to discover the true Cause of this likeness. The Famous Walton in his Prologomena to his Polyglot Bible, when he speaks of the Persian Tongue, ingeniously confesses, that it was a very hard Matter to say anything for certain concerning the Agreement there was between that and the Teutonick.

De hac questione difficile est aliquid pro certo affirmare.

However he adds, that he is of Buxhornius his Opinion, who fancied, that it proceeded from the Language of the Scythians, or Tartars, who having made several Incursions, as well into the East as West, left by that means a great deal of their Language, both among the Persians and Germans:

Boxhornii sententiam amplectendum elaw sentio, donee aliquid probabilius adseratur.

But the Celebrated Salmasius, who has left so many Excellent Pieces behind him, has come somewhat near the Truth. For after he had showed nor only the Resemblance there is between the Persian and Teutonick Languages, but also between them and the Greek, he appears to be in amazement, as if he could give no Reason for it; however he adventures, though by way of Conjecture, only to say, it came from no other than the Daae, or Dai, a People of Scythia, that over-ran the East and West. Now though this Learned Person has Did this only by Guess, as being a Matter of great Obscurity, yet it has been his good Fortune to guess Right ; and it is certain that the like-



ness there is between these Two ancient Languages, has originally proceeded from the Daae, of whom I have treated before. For the better understanding of this Matter, we ought to call to mind what has been laid already, towards the beginning of this Work, concerning the Origin of the Parthians. I have showed, that they were a part of the People called Comarians, or Gomarians, because they were the Descendants of Gomer, in the earlier Days of the World; and that having fallen out among themselves, they were by the prevailing Fashion driven out of Margiana, from whence they retired over the Mountains into the Province, that from them was afterwards called Parthia, as being the Habitation of the Parthians. For this was the Name which the Gomarians gave unto those they expelled from their Country, and the Parthians, on their part called them Sacra, who did them this Injustice and Violence : The exiled Parthians must therefore be considered as no other than a Colony of Gomarians, and seeing that anciently the Celtick Language was the same as that of this People, from whom they had their Origin, it's no wonder that the Parthian, and even the Persian Tongues, which last came from the other, should be full of Celtick Words, and that, after the Revolution of so many Ages, even to this Day.

Besides as the Daae from very ancient Times Dwelt towards the Southern Parts of Margiana; itís impossible but many of them must intermix with the Parthians,



when they were driven by the Gomarians into that Province; but if this had not happened at that Time, there were other Conjurers, which necessarily brought it to pass. For we find by the Testimony of Herodotus, that there were Dai, GREEK, in Persia, many Ages before our Saviour was Born, and perhaps long before his own Time. He observes in the same Place, that there were GREEK, Germanians there, for so the Word is, and ought to be rendered, for in reality those whom he calls thus, were no other then the Carmanians, who bordered upon Persia, and these Two, properly speaking, signify only Warlike Men: For the Word Carm-man among the Celtae, is the same as the Gerre-man, or German of the Daae, and Teutones : But the Carmanians, as well as the Persians, were true Colonies of the ancient Parthians, as might easily be made to appear; for besides the Conformity there was in their Manners and Language, they were Neighbours, and only separated by the Mountains from one another. But here we are to entertain the Reader with a Particular Remark: Those who have the least smatering in ancient History, know that the Kingdom or Empire of Persia, which for so long a Time made War against the Romans, was founded by Arsaces in the Higher Asia, about Two Hundred and Fifty Years before our Saviour's Time. Strabo, who says something of it, and had perused the ancient Authors, tells us, that this Arsaces, from



whom all that Parthian Race of Kings, were called Arsacides, ruled over the Dai, surnamed Parni, who lived about the Banks of the Occus, a River that runs about the Confines of Margiana and Bactriana; that it was by the help of these People, who were very ancient, that he made himself Master of the Neighbouring Province, called Parthia, and from thence it was, that his Kingdom, which became afterwards much enlarged by the many Victories and Conquests he made, was called the Parthian Empire.

Now if Arsaces founded this Empire by the means of the Dai, whom he ruled over, it's plain that these People were mixed and confounded with the Parthians, and after that with the Persians, who were subdued by them, and who, after the Parthians, for a long Time possessed the same Empire, till it was conquered by the Arabs, or Saracens.

If the Dai were in this manner intermixt with the Persians, it is not to be doubted but their Language, being that of the Conquerors, incorporated also with the other. I have showed before, that the Language of these Dai of Margiana, was the same, or mostly the same, with that of the Teutones ; and therefore it is not to be wondered at that, the Modern Persian Tongue, which has retained a multitude of things of the ancient Parthian Language, as those that have Skill in it own, should agree in many things with that of the Teutones, or Germans. For lastly, these Partly had their Origin, and



consequently their Language from the Dai, who in ancient Times passing from Asia into Europe and Germany, had the Name of Dacians. Thus it was that the Modern Persian Tongue, which is made up of that of the Arabs, who conquered the Country, and that of the ancient Parthians, is in many things like that of the Germans, notwithstanding the distance of the Countries, and after the Revolutions of many Ages.

CHAP. VII. (7)

Of the following Table.

As I have promised in several Parts of this Book, to add a Catalogue of the Greek, Latin, and German Words, which have their Origin from the Celtic Tongue, I am bound to keep my Word, and I should do it the more willingly, insomuch as nothing will more conduce to show, that these Three Famous Nations, have in the early Ages of the World, taken several things from that of the Gauls, then known by the Name of Titans. The Language of this Famous People, I mean the Celtae, or Gauls, which formerly made so much Noise in the World, is not lost, as some may imagine, after the Revolution of so many Ages, but preserved to this Day in Amorican Bretagne, a Province of France, and in Wales.



For in short, the Bretons of France, and  the Welch in Great Britain, have still the same Language, that in the Time of Julius Caesar and Augustus was spoke through all Gaul, though this Language varies in point of Dialect, as then it did. This is a matter that needs no Proof. The Learned own the Truth of it, and though they should change their Sentiments, it would be easy to convince them of it: The Celtick or Gaulish Tongue, which We call the British, is therefore an Original Language, and one of the ancientest in the World, as may be easily judged by all that I have said concerning it, and more especially by the following Catalogue, wherein you'll find the most ancient Greek, as well as the Latins, Teutones, or, Germans took an infinity of Words, in order to enrich their own Languages with them.

But yet I do not pretend, that the Languages of these People, so renowned in Antiquity, had their Origin from that of the Gauls, as some may be too apt to believe ; and this I thought fit to take Notice of; that nothing may be laid to my Charge that I'm not guilty of For who is there, that does not know, that the Greek Tongue, to say nothing of the other Two, is an Original Language, and even as ancient as that of the Celtae ? They had a very different Rise and Origin, yet it must be owned, they intermixed in Process of' Time. And as the Titans, from whom came the Celts, for some Ages, had Dominion over the Greeks, there took many things from the other, not only in Respect to the Language,



but some Customs also, and of this you will the more easily be convinced by reading what I have said before concerning the Spartans, who were better known by the Name of Lacedemonians : But the annexed Table will show better, than anything else that I can say, that the ancient Grecians took a great many Words from the Celtae, and consequently have enriched their Language with those of other People, whom they have so often called Barbarians.

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