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Paul Yves Pezron -- The Antiquities of Nations;

more particularly of the Celtae or Gauls, taken to be originally the same people as our ancient Britains.

Sub-headings:        This is Part 2 of 2, comprising The Antiquities of Nations, by Paul Pezron.

BOOK II.  (2)

Chap. I.         (1)          The Origin of the Celtick, otherwise called the Gaulish Language.          141

Chap. II.       (2)          What the Ancient Language of the Grecians was before the
                              Time of Deucalion and his Son Hellenus.

Chap. III.      (3)          Of the Ancient Language of the Aborigines, since called Latins.               184

Chap. IV.      (4)          Of the true Origin of the Teutones or Germans.                                         208

Chap. V.       (5)          That the Teutonick Language has borrowed much from the Celtick.         221 

Chap. VI.      (6)          That the Persian Language has borrowed much of the Teutonick.             226

Chap. VII.    (7)          Of the following Table.                                                                                   234  

BOOK III.  (3)

Chap. I.         (1)          A Table of Greek Words, taken from the Celtick or Gaulish Language.         245

Chap. II.       (2)          A Table of Latin Words taken form the Celtick or Gaulish Language.             262

Chap. III.      (3)          A Table of the Teutonick, or German Words,
                                            that are taken from the Celtick Language

Book 2

Chap. 1
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The Holy Scripture, which we ought to look upon to be the fountain of Life and Truth, in a few words discovers those great and important things to us, which without the help of it must have been buried in Eternal Oblivion. For its by it we are informed that God in making of man, besides other endowments, whether of Grace or nature, where with he was pleased to qualify him, gave him words to be interpreters of his thought s and the hidden recesses of his heart. He endowed him with the gift of speech from the very first time of his creation, that he might be able to celebrate his praises, and to live in community and Society with others of his own kind I have shown upon another occasion at large, that this first language


was preserved by mankind, not only till the time of the universal Deluge, but even to the building of the famous Tower of Babel, since call Babylon.

The word Babel in Hebrew signifies confusion, because the almighty at that time altered and confounded men's languages, in order to punish them for their pride and wickedness. Before that there was but one language in the world, but on a sudden they're screwing up several, which God was pleased to form in men, that their measures might be confounded and disconcerted, since they spoke about 1 tongue before, and so by this confusion there Vain and foolish and Fries was quickly at an end. Mankind being astonished with this punishment, and confounded, with their vanity, or however brought to obey God's command, that required they should people and replenish the Earth ; and therefore they left the land of Shinar or Babylon, and quickly disbursed themselves into all parts of the world.

But here we are to observe from the authority of Divine writ, that the heads of families or tribes having at that time different languages, began to form different peoples or nations. For example, the children of Sem (Shem), which in scripture are called Elam, Assur, Arphaxad and Aram, to mention no other, there are more than the heads of families before the confusion of the languages, but afterwards they became all of them heads of families, and of nations: so that from them came the Elamites, after-


wards known by the name of Persians ; the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and eremites, otherwise called Syrians. The same thing as to be said for the descendants of Cham (Ham), and how can it be denied in respect to the children of Japhet, who was the oldest of Noah's Three Sons?

This Patriarchís eldest son was Gomer, and next to him Magog and Madai, without our naming four more, that are mentioned in the Scripture. It is certain that Madai was the father of the Medes, the scriptures, and especially the prophet speak no otherwise.
Magog is also looked upon to be the origin of the Scythians, or people of great Tartary. Gomer, who was the eldest, must certainly, as well as the rest, be the founder of a people, and who could they be but the Gomarians? From whom, according to Josephus, the Celtae or Gauls were descended. And if Gomer be the true stock of the Gauls, as I have already made out by so many other proofs and authorities, they must needs have a language quite different from other people, and that was the Celtic tongue.

But to carry this name no farther, which indeed properly appertained to know other than the European provinces toward the west, it was at first the language of the Gomarians in Asia, then of the Sacae, afterwards of the Titans, and also of the Cimbri or Cimmerians.

After all which, that is, a series of many ages, it became at last the language of the Celtae, or better known by the name of Gauls.


The language therefore, of the Celtae, that fixed in Gaul, was from the first stages of the post diluvian world, the language of Gomarians, who were seated originally in the higher Asia, towards Hircania and Bactriana, and its not to be doubted but the language of the Gomarians was that of Gomer, it was their head and founder, and it was the language of Gomer, it must necessarily have been one of those formed at the confusion of Babel. All these deductions are so true, natural, and well pursued, that I cannot see how they should be denied.

They are supported and confirmed by the scripture. For Moses, after having in the 10th of Genesis, enumerated the children of Japhet, and some of their descendants, at the head of all which he places Gomer, says a little after: these were they, who are dispersed into several countries, into the Isles of the Gentiles, everyone according to their language, tribe, and people.    Ab his divisae sunt Insulae Gentium, in regionibis suis,unusquisq; secundam linguam suam, & familias  suas, in Nationibis suis.

As for the Isles of the Gentiles, according to the Hebrew language, which is common in scripture, Maritime regions or provinces are met by it, that is, all those countries you pass into by sea, as the Lesser Asia, Greece, Italy, Gaul and Spain, and other like places. But it is certain they were the posterity of Japhet, that peoples all these countries. Gomer was his eldest son. The Gomarians were descended of him.


These as well as others, possessed countries in the Isles of the Gentiles:

Josephus says, that the Gomarians for those who are called Galls: They were the people there for that filled Gaul with their colonies. I say nothing of my own here, all of it is grounded on scripture, and those have been at the pains to be the interpreters of it.

But let us not rest here, for we ought to neglect nothing for the confirming a truth, which may be contested, because it has Anna Manor continued Heather to concealed and unknown.

It's certain from what has been offered, the Celtae, extended themselves to the utmost boundaries of the West, that is into Gaul, were the descendants of those, who anciently bore the name of Titans.

Descendants. Callimachus, who flourished in Egypt about 250 years before our Saviors time, was so Satisfied With It, that he took delight to recount it, because it seemed to tend to the honor of Ptolemy Philadelphus, his hero, who played them a very ill trick. These Celtae were according to that author, titanium posteri, or rather, titanium sera posteritas, the descendants of the Titans, and if I may say, their last and remote posterity; If These Celtae came from the blood of the Titans, it is not to be doubted, but they preserve their language, as being that of their fathers and ancestors, and what I have said before is a clear proof of it, but I have shown, in treating those princess who


ruled over the Titans, that they were the contemporaries of Abraham, and even of his father Terah ; and that they were more ancient than the reign of Belus, the father of Ninus, and the famous Empire of Assyria. Here is antiquity for you that is equal with that of the ancient Patriarchs. But that is not all, for before these people, that in Old times made so much noise in the world, bore the name of Titans, they had that of Sacae, under which they perform greater things as well in the Higher Asia, as in Armenia, part of which was seized by them from these Early times which come up almost to the dispersion at Babel, and the days of Gomer, the Sacae and the Titans spoke the Celtic tongue, as may have been seen by several words that are still in being, and by the proper names of those princes and princesses that ruled over these Titans.

If to all these reasons we Join one proof, and that is, that the Celtic is even at this day full of words, that in all appearance came from the Hebrew, and exceeding ancient, it remains without dispute. But this language was that of Gomer and his posterity. And hence we may easily see, that it had its origin in the country of Babylon, amidst the confusion the first language. I cannot see it could have any other beginning than this. But that is not so extraordinary thing, since there are several other languages that can also boast of it. Thus have I given you my thoughts on what might


be sad with most semblance of Truth, touching the origin of the Celtic language.

But before we go any further, I pray your attention to one particular. When the almighty, after the appeasing of His displeasure by the universal Deluge, which destroyed the wicked of the world, came to give his Blessing to the three sons of Noah, whom he had reserved for peopling the Earth again, he bid them multiply and increase, and replenish the Earth.
  et replete terram.

But when their father Noah, sometime after gave them his benediction, he said to Japhet his eldest son, God shall enlarge Japhet, &c, which was a very prophetic blessing, and dictated by the spirit of God, will let him know, that the bounds and possessions of Japhet, that is of his posterity, should be of a vast extent. In short the descendants of this ancient patriarch possessed above half Asia, and all Europe besides, to say nothing here of America.

If things were so, which of the sons of Japhet ought to have the greatest share in this propagation of his posterity, and peopling the vast countries they were to enjoy. If we speak according to the Rules of Nature and Equity, is eldest son, who was Gomer, according to the scripture, must have been the person. And in effect, it is what came to pass, according to the singular distribution of God's Providence, that orders all things according to his good pleasure. For it was from this


 Gomer, who settled first in the provinces of operation, that in process of time the Celtae came ; and these people were so warlike and numerous, that they possessed almost all the countries of Europe. And hence it was that on the one side, the Cape of Oby, which is at the mouth of the river Oby, the farther part of Muscovy was anciently called Promontorium Celticae litarmis, carumbucis lucis, and that on the other side Cape Sinister, which is the farthest balance of Spain, and the Western point of Galicia, was also called Promontorium Celticum, from the Celtae, who possess these countries of Spain.

The Celtae were there for anciently seated in both the extremities of Europe, towards the east and west. Besides we have historians and geographers who fix the dwellings of the Celtae from the den o and the Alps, in all the west and north, where in it may be said, they were not mistaken. It was upon these topics in the thirties, that the most ancient Greeks comprehended two-thirds of Europe, under the name of Celtae, or Celto-Scythe. Veteres Graecorum Scriptores , says Strabo, universas Gentes septentrionales {}, Scythas & Celto-Scythas appellaverunt.

This learned man had already said in his first book, that those ancient Greeks gave also the name of Celtae and Iberi, or rather that of Celti-Berians, and Celto-Scythians, tell toast at the ends, to those people who live towards the western parts of a Europe. His words are Celtae & Iberi, Aut mixto no-


mine Celtiberi ac Celto-Scythae appellati sunt.

We ought to be satisfied from those ancient Greek authorities, that the provinces of Europe, as well towards the West as the North, or full of Celtae, which gave Everest, who lived a little before the reign of Alexander the Great, occasion to say, that Celtica was over prodigious extant ;

Ephorus ingenti magnitudine dicit esse, {}, Celticam.

The ancient Grecians we see, understood very well, that the Celtae in ancient times had possessed a great part of Europe, and they plainly enough own it. But it is strange, they did not know, that the same Celtae under the name of Titans, continued about 300 years masters of the Lesser Asia, Thrace and Greece, without exception ; which I have so well proved, when I treated of Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter, that it cannot be overthrown. On the other hand, the Latins seem to be ignorant, that only one third of Italy, had for several ages been in the possession of the Umbrians, who were a Gaulish or Celtic people. The same thing may be said in respect to the Sabins, Osci, Opiqui, Volsians and Brutians, all of whom, they were very ancient, descended from the Celtae. And indeed I cannot but wonder, that the Romans, either did not know or else perhaps disassembled it. The Greeks did the same in reference to the Titans. For the ancient fragments which we still have in our hands, both of the one and all of the other Nation, would induce us


to believe they were not altogether ignorant of this truth.

Be it as it will, it's playing from what I have said, that the blessing of Noah, and respect to Japhet, was a prediction that was fully accomplished, that his possessions were vastly extensive, but that he himself enjoyed so many countries and territories, know otherwise stand by the posterity of Gomer, his eldest son. That he settled many colonies in Asia, and so the great part of the earth with the people descended from him ; it was by means of so many colonies, that the language of Gomer, or if you will of the Gomarians, that had its beginning in Asia, afterwards spread itself over all of Europe, under the name of Celtic. For what was no otherwise known then by this, and that Gaulish, which is the same thing in the western parts. While it remained in the east, I mean in the territories of the operation, it was considered no otherwise than the language of the Gomarians, who in process of time and had the name of Sacae. Let us therefore inquire now in the first place, whether the same language was not enlarged, or did not undergo some mixture and change, before it left the province's adjoining to the Caspian Sea, and Bactriania, for there it was, that it first had beginning

That we may more easily clear up this point, we are to remember that the Gomarians, who dwell in Margiana, having by reason of civil and domestic


quar-rels, drove some of their people out, these passed over the high mountains lying to the south of that Province, and entered into a country, that to them was new and strange. And these exiles, as I may call them, were afterwards known by the name of Parthians. From them, I have very good reason to believe, the Persians, who became so famous afterwards, were descended, though something is to be set of their neighbors of Carmania; and hence it is, that ancient authors call them sometimes Carmani, and other wiles Germani.

There is no room to quibble about these two words, since they signify the same thing, and in the Celtic tongue, as much as war-like men. For here we are to observe by the way, that there are many words of that language still to be found in the Persian tongue, which we are not to wonder at, since the Persians are descended from the most ancient Parthians, and that these last were the progeny of the Comarians, afterwards call Sacae, and the ancestors of the Celtae.

Moreover, the Persian language is in many things like the Teutonic, or the High Dutch, and this likeness is sometimes so apparent, that very learned men have

stood amazed at it, which they need not be, had they well-considered, that those two Nations, I mean, the Persians and Germans, had anciently received very numerous colonies, that came from the same people, such as lived in Upper Asia,


Known by the name of Daes, enlighten, Da or Dai. For when they passed into Europe, they were called Dacians, and were the Daci of the Romans, who were often intermixed with the Getae, and they made the ancient sometimes confound the two Nations. But this only by the way, I may perhaps speak more fully to it and another place. I am now to observe, that the Teutones had their origin from these Dacians that came from Asia, but more particularly from the Phrygians, as shall be made out hereafter. These Dacians had several times sent colonies amongst the Parthians and Persians, their neighbors, and it may be said, that Arsacidan Parthians reigned in Asia mainly by their Help. These things considered, it's not to be wondered, that the Persian language, notwithstanding the changes that may have undergone had anciently, and even still retains so much likeness, in many things, to the Teutonic. Perhaps this discovery of matters that were so obscure before, may be no unpleasing thing to the lovers of Antiquity.

But as the Celtic tongue, in the early ages of the world, was communicated to the Parthians, and so to the Persians, who were colonies of the other people. It had on the other side received many things from the Chaldeans, long before Abraham's time. And that came to pass, so far as we are able to conjecture in the following manner. After that the Gomarians had obtained the name of Sacae, and multi-


plied Very much in the upper Asia, towards the countries of Hyrcania and Bactriana, several bodies of them being sent out to seek their Fortune, fell into the greater Armenia, and finding it to be a fine and delightful country, from whence they might promise great Felicity to themselves, they fixed there, and made a powerful settlement. And so the Sacaei communicated their name to part of this province, which was called Sacasena, or rather Sacastena, signifying as much as the country of the Sacae. The Gomarian Sacae, by this new settlement, found themselves to be neighbors to the Chaldeans, and as it were, mixed with them. For you must know, that in the first stage of the post diluvian World, several of the Chaldeans returned into the mountains of Armenia, there were there the more easily to contemplate the stars and to live with the more safety from the invasions of other people.

Auguries, divinations, magic and enchantments were then much in use among most nations in the world; and they undertook nothing of any considerable importance, without consulting their diviners, and the like. It's well known that the Chaldeans in those times were looked upon to be the greatest Masters, in these over curious and diabolical Sciences. The Sacae, who were their neighbors, were not wanting to become their disciples, and were, if I may so say, initiated by them into all those Mysteries of Superstition and


Iniquity. It was therefore in the Chaldean schools, that they chiefly learned all that which was most refined and Secret in those profane and dangerous Arts.

Hence it was, that they learn to take their nearest relations, even their own the sisters to be their wives, and to make this criminal, not to say, abominable and incestuous Alliance, a point of honor and religion also. And it was from the same principles of this dangerous doctrine, that some ages after the Sacickt or Titan princess, I mean Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter, married their own sisters. It was from hence they learned, as I may say, to stigmatize their bodies, that is to imprint certain figures, marks or characters upon them, whereby they were consecrated, not to the service of their imaginary deities, but to the worship of Devil's, and the Prince of Darkness, that seduce them. Lastly, to pass over many other particulars, it was the school that they learned to inspect the entrails of Beast, and perhaps of men, too, in order to have their more important divinations, the more confirmed by the fibers or lobes of the liver. This the Grecians and their language called{} Fecur inspicere, or Fecur Consulere, that is, to consult, or rather by way of divination to inspect the liver. It's so certain that these sorts of divination came from the Chaldeans, that the famous Nabuchadonosor (Nebuchadnezzer), King of Chaldea and Babylon, made use of it before he laid Siege to Jerusalem. For being come


to The meeting of two ways, one of which lead to the Judea, and the other two of the country of Amman, and not knowing which way he should go ; the scripture says, that beside other divinations he consulted delivers of Beast, and there are Pawn without any more do determine to go to Judy, in order to destroy Jerusalem, to which he believed his Gods had directed him.

But to return to the Sacae that settled in the greater Armenia, the Curetes, or with their priest, sacrificers, doctors and diviners, were not wanting to learn these pernicious sciences and forementioned customs inspired into them by demons and evil spirits, that had seduced most part of the world to such wickedness of the Chaldeans.

The Curetes glorified that they taught them to the princes and kings of their nation and Country ; and hence it was, that Uranus, his son Saturn and Grandson Jupiter, affected to marry their own sisters, Titea, Rhea and Juno ; and The Poets who wrote these things, were not mistaken. By all these particulars it's easy to see, that the Armenian Sacae had some intimacy and communication with the ancient Chaldeans, that they imitated them in many of their customs, and that they also borrowed many words of their language, as may be seen still to this day.

The Sacae, the posterity of Gomer, made "Irruptions" from the Armenia into Cappadocia adjoining to the Euxine Sea; and not long


After passed from thence into the upper Phrygia, under the conduct of Acmon, and his brother Doeas, who in all probability was his diviner. For in those times, princes, and even Kings themselves, glorified to have skill in Auguries and Divinations, as well as in delusions and enchantments. And here we are to observe a thing that is of some importance to what I have advanced, that these people came in a manner from the same stock in blood as the Gomarian Sacae. For the Phrygians had Ashkenaz, who in scripture is mentioned to be the eldest son of Gomer, for their father and origin; and seeing we have made it out, that the Sacae were descended from the fame Gomer, is impossible but these two ancient and famous people must agree, and be like one another in many respects,. Hence it is, that the Celtae, or Gauls, who are the descendants of the Sacae, and of the Teutones or Germans, the posterity of the Phrygians, have always had resemblance in their customs and manners to one another.

It was in Phrygia, and under the government of Uranus, the son of Acmon, I have before spoken of, that the Gomarian Sacae, began to change their name, and to assume that of Titans, which signifies, a man of the Earth, or an earth-born man. This name grew famous in The Reigns of Saturn and of his son Jupiter, under whom the Titans spread themselves more and more in Greece, Italy, Sicily, Gaul and Spain. And it may well


enough be imagined, that their language became as extensive as their empire, which lasted for some ages, this having always been the practice of Victorious and conquering Nations. And therefore when you shall by and by hear me say, that the language of the ancient Greeks, I mean those who lived before the time of Hellenus and Deucalion, was full of Celtic, and when after that you shall find me add, that the language of the Aborigines, or first Latins of Italy was enriched by that of the Kelty, there will be in a manner no great difficulty made to believe it, at least I cannot think I shall meet with much reluctance in this matter.

Should we suppose for once that the Empire of the Titans, or the ancestors of the Kelty, was settled over Greece and Italy, as indeed it cannot be contested, a man would in some degree be esteemed an "Opiniatre" and unreasonable, not to believe a thing that had has such a face of Truth, and has as it as it were, scarce anything to induce him to the contrary.

And if after all, it should seem strange and novel, which cannot well be, that the Greeks and the Romans should receive anything from The Barbarians, it can be so to no other than to those, who are about little acquainted with Antiquity, or have not sufficiently heeded what I have offered, and discovered to them upon this head. But if there be any doubt or scruple yet remaining, I hope


it will all vanish, upon their reading that which follows.  {Chapter 1 ends here on 158}

Chapter 2 Begins on this page 158
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What the Ancient Language of the Grecians was, before the time of Deucalion and his son Hellenus.

I think it will not be improper in this place, to say a word or two concerning the origin of the ancient Greeks, before I come to the language used by these renowned people. How remote so ever it may seem to be from us, yet it is neither so obscure nor uncertain, as that of several other nations. For in short it's known they were the descendants of Javan, or rather Jaon, mentioned in scripture, to be the fourth son of Japhet, by which it plainly appears that Javan was one of the brothers of Gomer, was the eldest of all. And thus the Celtae and the Greeks, who seemed in customs and manners to differ so much from one another, yet had two brothers for their heads and first founders. And perhaps this was the reason that these two famous nations were not once so unlike another, as they appeared to be in succeeding ages.


Javan then was the true stock, or origin, not only of the Ionians, but even of all the Grecians, as Josephus, who calls him Javan, assures us in his Antiquities:
{} i.e. ab Javan Iones & omnes Gaeci prognati sunt.

It was from this same Javan in that the Ionians took their name, according to Saint Epiphanius, and he was also the first author of the ancient Greek tongue, which these people took care to preserve: Aquo Iones omnes traxere, {} qui veterum Graecorum Linguam retinuerunt.

But yet we must not think that these people had the name of Ionians from their first beginning. All strangers called them know otherwise than Jaonians, as we learn from The Scholar Aristophanus, who says, {} omnes Graecos Barbari Jaones apellabant.    

But they were not barbarians and strangers only that called them by this name, as the scholar would have it, since Homer himself, in the 12th book of his Illiads names them so ; and this would make us think that the person, well afterwards was called Javan, was anciently named Jaon. Be this as it will, the word in process of time was from Jaonians, softened into that of Ionians, and this name the people of Attica chiefly retained, and also their colonies settled in Asia, and perhaps before that in the maritime parts of the Peloponnesus, towards the country of the Sicyonians.


What the Greeks say is not to be bore with, concerning the Ionians having their name from Ion, the son of Xutus, and Grandson of Hellenus, whose father was Deucaleon, so famous in ancient history. For it is certain, that the people of Attica, long before the time of Ion, were called Ionians, as well as their colonies in Peloponnesus, and this made Pausanias, a critical author enough, say, that if the Ionians had their name from this Ion, the son of Xutus, it was only by way of addition and over plus.

Quamquam istud eis non mutationemnominus attulit sed additamentum.

Besides Herodotus has very well observed, that the Athenians, and those of them that lived in the colonies of Asia, did not care to be called Ionians, being the name which most of them hated, and this (besides that it was odious, by reason of the cowardice of the Asiatic Ionians)
because they would not have it be thought that they came from Ion, the great grandson of Deucalion, who was a barbarous Prince.

But seeing we have insensibly mentioned Deucalion, You must know that the poets and historians make him to be the son of Prometheus, whom they'll have to be the son of Japet, the brother of Saturn, and the uncle Jupiter. If that be true, Deucalion must have been descended from the blood of the Titan princess and consequently of the Celtic race. But to make him be Saturn's


Nephew, Is a piece of ignorance not to be tolerated. For this Titan Prince lived in the time of Abraham, and Prometheus, the father of Deucalion, did not come out of Asia into Greece till about eight hundred years after. However it were, Deucalion as much as a stranger and a barbarian, as he was made to be, obtained the title of King in the midst of Greece, and not far from Attica. He began his reign in the ninth year of Cecrops, the first king of Athens, which was 1,574 years before our savior's birth, as may be seen by the Marmora Aundeliana. Now it was in the reign of this foreign Prince, that the Deluge happened, which from him was called Deucalionís flood, and made so much noise in Greece, though in itself was no great matter.

Deucalion having in this manner fixed himself towards Parnassus, at his death left two sons, the first of whom was called Helenus, and the other Amphictyon, the last of these governed at Athens after his brother-in-law, Cranaus, who was their second king, and whom the other dethroned.

As for Hellenus the eldest, he rained and in the country of Phocus, which was part of the lower Thessaly. The Mamora Arundeliana in a very particular manner informs us all of what it is extremely remarkable, that in the second year of his Reign, those people who were then called Greeks {}, took the name of Hellenes,{} Hellenes appalati sunt. And this name grew afterwards so pleasing to the people of Greece, that they, as it were, adopted it as their beloved name. Though it came from a


Prince of a barbarous race. This remarkable change happened in Greece, or at least in some part of it, 1521 years before our Christian era begin. This Hellenus had three sons, the eldest of which was called Eolus, the second Dorus, and the third Xuthus.

The first by right of Primogeniture, succeeded his father in his dominions, and reigned after him and Phocis, the South part of Thessaly; The 2nd has Estiotidis for his share, which was part of the same Province. But his descendants after many vicissitudes, being expelled, at last fixed towards the borders of Parnassus, between Phocidis and Mount Eleus.

As for Xuthus, He went to dwell with Athens, and having married the daughter of a rectus, he had two sons by her, who were ion and a curse, as historians name them. The first of these, for his great action screw very famous and having done great services to the people of Attica, he obtained much reputation and authority among them these and shirt with a sons and grandsons of the famous Deucalion, and the settlement they made in several parts of Greece.

Here I must desire my reader to stop for a moment, that he may carry two very remarkable considerations along with him. The first is the address of these foreign princes, and the other the ignorance of the Grecians, who value themselves so much for their exactness. As for Deucalion, this Prince having at first obtain a small territory in Lycoria, upon Mount



Parnassus, But not willing to be limited within so narrow bounds, he made war against his neighbors, and himself master of Phocidis in Thessaly, and it may be of Estiotidis also. Observe, I pray you, that Phocidis was not called by that name, above 160 years before the reign of Deucalion, and that it received from Phith a prince that came thither from Arcadia.

This small territory of lower Thessaly was otherwise called Hellades, and this, which was the true name, came from a very ancient colony of people called Hellades, signifying as much as the country of the Hellians,

In Greek {}, Selli, or Sellians.

Who are also named

These people coming from Thesprosia, near Dodona, with a famous Oracle was, endevoured to fix themselves in the lower Thessaly, which country from them took the name of Hellades, signifying as much as the country of the Hellians.

Deucalion, to please the people, whom he had Conquered, call his son Hellenus, as if he had been descended from those people, and this same Hellenus coming afterwards to be king, required is subjects, who are at that time called
{ Graeci which was a common name to the whole nation, and who are descended from these ancient Hellians, should for the future be named Hellenians. I say they were called Greeks before but we are here to take notice that the country where Hellenus reigned, had bore the name of Hellades, as well as Phosidis, but that for a long time after inhabitants called themselves Greeks, and not Hellians, as anciently they had done. In


short, in the time of Cecrops and Decalion and there were, properly speaking, no other inhabitants than those about Dodona, and the people of Phiocitis, who were a colony of them, with some other Thessalians, that went by the name of Greeks, that is, there were no other descendants of the ancient Hellians, that bore that name, whether they were those that continued in the Sprotia, or those that lived in Thessaly. Hellenus therefore would have his subjects quit the name of Greeks, and assume that of Helenius in its Stead. This we not only learn from the Marmora Arundellians, but also from Apollodorus, Aristotle, Pliny, Eusebius, and others.

That which is very surprising to me is that a name, which a petty Prince of foreign extraction, gave at first to no other than the inhabitants of Hellader or Phiotidis, who were his subjects, should in process in time become common to all the Grecians. And indeed we find they made no manner of difficulty to assume that of Hellenians, though it was not till about seven hundred years after, towards the beginning of the Olympians, and seven or eight hundred years before our savior. For we find by Homer that in his time they called no other people Helenians, but those of Hellades in Thessaly.

King Hellenus, in respect to his children imitated the policy of his father Deucalion. He knew well enough that the most ancient people of Greece were called either Eolians or Dorians, and that there


were several of that name in Thessaly. His eldest son he named Eolus, and to the second he gave the name of Dorus affecting thereby to make them bear the names of those ancient people of Greece. Xuthus, his third son, did in a manner the same thing for having fixed himself at Athens, where the name of the Jaonians, as also the Ionians, was very ancient, he called his eldest son Ion, to the other he gave the name of Acheus, because there were a people called Achaeans in Thessaly, from whence he came.

It's an easy matter to observe not only in Deucalion, who was a cunning Prince, but also in Hellenus and Xuthus his son and grandson, a singular piece of "Affectation," and admirable addresses to insinuate themselves into the affections of the Greeks, and to conciliate their favor, and perhaps this address of theirs might be accompanied with a secret ambition of transmitting their names to posterity. Certainly if these were the designs of these barbarous princes it must be owned they succeeded admirably therein. For the Greeks and process of time had that compliance for them, as to give to their language the name of Hellenus, by calling it no other than the Hellenic tongue; and the dialects of it, the names of Deucalionís Descendants. For example, did not Ion, the son of Zeus, communicate his name to the Ionians, and to their Ionic tongue? Was not the same thing done in respect to Eolus and Dorus, his kindred? Were not the Ionic and


Dorick Dialects so denominated from them. The Greeks both say it and write it, but if they fancy that these names, which have been so ancient standing in Greece, came originally from the grandsons of Deucalian, we must charge them with being guilty of a piece of inexcusable ignorance.

I have adventure to say the US much, and I think I have good reason for it. For it is certain that the Greek tongue had these three dialects Ab Origine, and that they bore those names I have before mentioned many ages before The Reigns of Hellenus and Deucalion, as we shall see presently. It is true that King Hellenus had the glory to communicate his name to the Grecians, who from him were called {}
 Hellenes, as their language was named the Hellenic tongue, and what is very surprising is, that the name of Greeks 
{} Graeci, in time became so hateful and neglected, that it is scarce at all to be met with in any of their writings, or but very rarely, and that only in some of their ancient poets.

As to Eolus and Dorus, the two sons of Hellenus, if they communicated their names to the Eolians and Dorian's, as the Greeks will have it, it was only as I said before, by way of addition and "surplusage", for these names were in being among the Greeks many ages, before they ever heard of Deucalion and his grandsons. And this the Greek historians have not given due heed to in their writings. But that we may show that these names of Ionians and Eolians came not originally from the poster-


ity of Deucalion, as the Greeks have fancy, it will be proper here to give a scheme of matters in Greece, and to inspect the state of it about the time ofCecrops and Deucalion ; for by this short View things will become more easily understood, then otherwise they can be

We may boldly affirm, that the Greeks have no certain records or monuments of antiquity that can be depended on before the time of Cecrops, the first king of Athens. They're history, properly speaking, begins with that prince, and it is from him downwards that we have a good regular succession of their kings and archons. With him being the Parian Marbles, which are a curious remnant of antiquity ; and it is from him that Eusebius in his Chronicle, continues the succession of all the Athenian Kings.

These were the first princes of this country, of whom anything can be "averred," that is certain, and there were some ancient monuments remaining of them in that famous city, in the time of the Roman emperors. Who do you imagine this Cecrops was? Do you take him to be one of the Greek race, or one of the indigenes of Attica, of whom the first Athenians always boasted they were descended? There is nothing in all this. Cecrops was an Egyptian by descent, and born in the city of Sais, who when he passed by sea into Greece, found Attica become a prey to barbarians, as well as most of the adjacent countries. Some of them he conquered by Force of Arms, others he brought to submit by gentle methods, and having


made them more tractable, as well as the natives of the country, he rained for the space of 50 years over them. He began his government and Attica 806 years before the Olympiads, according to the computation of the Marmora Arundelliana, and 1582 years before our savior's birth {1582 BC}.

Cecrops had not been about 9 years upon the throne, when Deucalion, who was a barbarous prince, coming from some parts of the operation, began to reign in Lycoria towards Mount Parnassus. His son Hellenus, after his decease governed one part of his dominions, I mean, a part of Thessally, but he had scarce been 4r years upon the throne, when the famous Cadmus came by sea from Phoenicia, that is, from about Tyre and Sidon, and this new comer seized upon Thebes, the capital of Beotia, where he built a citadel, called Cadmea by his name, and there fixed the seat of his Dominion. Historians assure us, he brought the Phoenician Letters, which were then 16 in number, into Greece, and say, that before his time these people, that became afterwards so polite, had none. But I cannot for many reasons be of this opinion, though it has commonly obtained amongst the Grecians, as well as other authors.

I am therefore confident that there were letters in Greece before Cadmus his time, and more especially among those people call the Eolians; I mean, the Ancient Eolians, who were several ages before Hellenus and Deucalion. But we cannot now enter upon "Disquisition" of this mat-


ter. Cadmus first settled in Beotia 1519 {BC} years before our savior came into the world, and 310 before the Trojan War. 8 years after his arrival came a body of Egyptians, under the conduct of Dennis, into Peloponnesus. This Prince landed at Argos ; and having a little time expelled King Eleanor, rained in his stead in Argos and argolis, in the neighborhood of Laconia. The government of this stranger begin about 1,500 years before the date of the Christian era.

From what has been said, you may see the changes that happened in Greece, about the time of Cecrops and Deucalion, and that in the space of 70 years, a great part of this country was filled with strangers and barbarians, who reign there a long time, and made potent settlements ; so I have not enumerated Eumalpus and Tereus, among these foreigners, both of whom came from Thrace, and the first of them at that time possessed himself of a part of Attica, towards Megara, and the other a Canton of Phocus, which bore the name of Daulidis.

Let us farther add, that about the revolution of one age, after the death of Cecrops, the famous Pelops, the son of Tantalus, who was then king of Phrygia, came into Greece, with a good number of followers, and this Phrygian having not long after married Hyppodamia, the daughter and only heir of Oenomaus, he reigned in Elis, after his father-in-law's decease. Pelops


governed this new Dominion a long time, Peopling it with Phrygians, and grew so potent, that he communicated his name to Peloponnesus, which signifies the peninsula of Pelops. Having attained to this degree of power and authority, it is not to be doubted but that for the better securing of his Acquisitions, of whose power his neighbors could not choose but be jealous, he made use of strangers, brought thither out of Phrygia. It's easy from this compendious account, which is been Faithfully taken from the records of ancient times, to see that the great part of Greece was under the power and Dominion of foreign princess 15 or 16 hundred years before our SaviorísNativity, which gave Hecataeus of Miletus, a very ancient historian, for he flourished in the time of Darius, the son of Hysdaspes, occasion to say, that the Barbarians dwelt in the Peloponnesus before the Grecians, that is, before the descendants of Hellenus:

{} Quod ante Graecos habitaverunt eam barbari.

But that which Hecataeus says only the Peloponnesus, Strabo assures us, was true in respect almost to all grease in these words:
{} Ecquidem tota fere Grecia antiquitus a Barbaris fuit >>fuit looked to be an f as best as I could tell. I entered it into Google translator and it does come up as "was" in English.<<

And this we have also confirmed by Pausanias in his first book of the description of ancient Greece. Wherefore this famouss country was filled with foreigners, during the Reigns of Ce-


crops and Deucalion, and sometime after. Now if that be true, as there is no room to question it, since all the Greeks confess it themselves ; what we can think of the ages preceding that time? Is not there room to believe that the ancient and first Greeks in those remote ages, being less capable to defend themselves, must have their country overrun with barbarians? And these came either out of the territories of Asia, or those parts of Europe, which lie to the north. What I've said before concerning the Titans shows this to be true enough. Seeing that they were absolute masters of all Greece in the reigns of Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, and some others, for above 300 years together.

I have Heather to Endeavor to give a concise and distinct idea of the state of Greece, in the time of cash crops and Deucalion, the word contemporaries, and in that of Hellenus, and his two sons, healers and Doris, who succeeded him in his Dominion's. We are now to show, and that even in opposition to the common opinion of the Grecians, but they were not these two princess, and were strangers by descent, that gave name to the first Eolians and Dorians, of ancient Greece, and that the Ionians had not theirs neither from their nephew Ion, the son of Xuthus.

In order to this, we need no more than to review what I have already said concerning Javan or Jaon, who, according to scripture, was Japhetís forth Son, and looked upon to be the father and founder of the Greek nation, that had its origin from him. This


person, Being the son of Japhet, lived in the time of the confusion of languages, and the dispersion of the people over the face of the Earth. He had Greece to his share, according to Josephus, and the ancient fathers unanimously agreed to it. There were above 1500 years space, from the time of Javan or Jaon, to the reign of Deucalion, and his son Hellenus, who gave the name of Hellenes to the Grecians. Things being so, I must ask what name did the first inhabitants of Greece go by, for so long a revolution of time? For in short they must have one to distinguish them from other nations? And what must be must that be but Jaonians, as being come from Joan, their first founder. This name and process of time became somewhat softened and was changed into that of Ionians, and perhaps Aonians.

Again we have all the reason imaginable to believe, that Javan or Jaon usually resided in Attica, and hence it was undoubtedly, that the Athenians boasted they were the Aborigines or Autochthones, according to their language, which signified people born in that country, and natives that came from no other place:

Cujus suae Patrie, said Demosthenes of old, dicuntur esse Autochthones seu Indigenae, {}
After which he presently adds, soii omnium hominum, ex quo lati sunt, hanc incoluerunt, & posteris suis tradiderunt.
And all this we find confirmed by Socrates, Plato, Euripides, and several others. But as the Athenians boasted


much of their Antiquity in this kind, and became very fond of it, Antisthenes the philosopher, in a way of raillery once told them, that he wondered they should so much glory in the thing which Grasshoppers and snails could as much pretend to as themselves. The sort of pleasantry might help a little to lessen that vanity, but could not make the people of Attica less in point of antiquity, and we may say the Arcadians contested it with them upon this account to no purpose. However, Socrates had no grounds to say that Athens was the most ancient city of all Greece, {}, Urbem antiquissimam.  For I take it certain, but after Pausanius, that of Lycosura, which was in Arcadia, was older.

As therefore the first inhabitants of Attica came from Javan or Jaon ; they were anciently called Jaonians. And this Strabo makes out upon the authority of Homer, who in the 13th book of his Iliads has these words: {}, Illicautem Baeoti & Jaones and says that by Jaones, that poet meant the Athenians, Athenienses significat.

 Strabo in the same place shows distinctly, that the inheritance of Attica, and the country of Megara, were very anciently called Jaonians, and also adds, as a thing very remarkable, that they bore the name of Ionians, before the building of that ancient city:  Antiquitus hanc Regionem  He speaks of the territory of Megara,  Sicut & Atticum  {}, Iones habitabant nec dum Conditis Megaris.

The City of Megara was very ancient, having


been That's about the time of Inachus, several ages before The Rains of Cecrops and Deucalion. Had not Pausanias therefore reason to say, that the ancient Ionians had their name from Ion, the son of Xuthus, it was only by way of surplus,  Non mutationem eis attulit, sed Attitamentum.

This is most certain and undisputable; and I cannot imagine how the Greeks, who pretended to so much skill in Antiquity, could think or write otherwise.

Wherefore we must distinguish between these two sorts of Ionians, I mean the ancient ones, who had their name as well as their origin from Jaon, and were call Jaonians, or Ionians, for the easier pronunciation ; and the new ones, who indeed had their name from Ion, the grandson of Hellenus. The same thing is to be noted in respect to the Ionic or Ionian language, for there were two sorts of them, viz, the ancient Ionic, which was spoke in Athens, and the neighboring Parts, before the time of Cecrops, and there is reason to believe that it was same as the Attic tongue of those times ; and the modern Ionic, that had its name from Ion, the great grandson of Deucalion, and it was this that in process of, came to be distinguished from the Attic dialect. What has been the said concerning the Ionians may also be applied to the Eolians and Dorians, since it is certain that there were two sorts of them, the ancient and modern. For the easier understanding of this matter, you must know that Jaon or Javan the


Father of the Greeks, had several Sons, the eldest of whom was named Elisa, for so Moses calls him. This person had the peninsula of Greece for his share, which was afterwards called Peloponnesus, and his name had been preserved not only by the country, call Elidis/Elidus, but also by a river, named Elissa, that falls into the sea, near Cyllene, and was a port of the Elians. Josephus ind his Antiquities says, that the descendants of Elisa were at first called Eliseans, but afterwards called Eolians. This is confirmed by Saint Jerome in his Hebrew traditions, by Eustathius of Antioch, in his commentaries upon the Hexameron, and by St. Isadore, in his Origines. It cannot be denied but that the posterity of Elisa had the name of Eolians, for these were without any dispute the first people of Greece, after the Jaonians or Ionians ; but part of them had also in very early times the name of Dorians. So that these first people of Peloponnesus were divided into Eolians and Dorians, Each of which had their particular dialect, call the Eolic and Doric. The first of these chiefly obtained in Elus, Arcadia, and the neighboring countries, and the other was spoke in Laconia and Argolis.

I cannot tell but that the name of Dorians, which is very ancient, might come from the Greek {}, that formally signified a bark or ship, and so it may be Dorians implied no more than Seamen or Sailors. It's certain that these first Dorians of Peloponnesus were great Sailors, and then it was by the help of their barks or ships that they fixed the 


first colonies that were ever in the Isles of Crete and Rhodes, and in several other islands in the Aegean and Ionian seas, as also in Sicily, hence it was that the people of these Isles were from very early times esteemed Dorian's, and their language ever went for Doric. Dorians being the settled very early in the Isle of Rhodes, They carried colonies by sea into several other parts, and especially to the coast of Gaul near the Rhosne, as ancient history makes it out to us.

The Grecians, I mean the most learned of them, have fancied that the tongue had its name from Eolus, the eldest son of Hellenus. Aeolica, said Jamblicus, Quae ab AEolo nomen sortita est.

They have the same notion of the Dorick, and that it came from Dorus, the Second Son of that Prince. But it is an error that cannot be born either in Jamblicus or the other Greeks that went before him. I take it for granted, that the Eolic, and the same may be said of the Doric tongue, was of so ancient standing, especially in the territories of Peloponnesus, as to proceed the times of Hellenus and his father Deucalion above a thousand years ; for it is very plain that this language that afterwards spreads so much was in use in the time that Jupiter and his father Saturn reigned in Greece. In so much, that it must have been in Vogue even in Abraham's days and it is upon account of great Antiquity of the Eolic tongue, that shows Josephus in his history of the Jews says that the posterity of Elisa were afterwards called Eolians.


Here I desire you to observe that these Eolians multiplied very much and Elidis, and yet more in Arcadia, that was in the middle of Peloponnesus, as well as most ancient Arcadians., likewise bore the name of Pelasgians, and under it form several colonies both in Greece and Italy, it is not to be believed, how much the Eolic tongue spread itself every way by means of these settlements. Hence it was that Strabo made no scruple to say, that all the Grecians that had live without the Peloponesan Isthmas, accepting the Athenians, Megarians and Dorian's, who dwelt towards Mount Parnassus, were even then in his time reckoned Eolians:

Omnes enim Creaeci, qui extra Isthmum sunt, Exceptis Athniensibus, Megarensibus, Doriensibus, qui circa Parenassum degunt,         . . . etiam nunc Eoles vocantur.  Strabo, 1.8.

It's therefore certain that the Eolians, who had their origin in Peloponnesus, overspread all Greece by the several settlements made by the Pelasgians of Arcadia. This was the way by which the Eolic tongue prevailed so much, and we find it proved by several parts of history, but it was fixed in Thessaly long before the rain of Cecrops and Deucalion.

How can the Greeks tell us, that the Eolian the sand that came from the grandson of Deucalion, whose name was Eolus? This cannot be, and therefore ought to be rejected as scandalous and erroneous.

But least it should be Imagine by some that this language of the Ancient Aliens should be only confined to the provin-


ces of Greece, it spread itself in the early ages of time, even to the heart of Italy; and we have reason to believe the Arcadians were chiefly the people, who brought it thither, one while under the name of Eonotrians, and at another time of Pelasgians, and it may be under some other yet more ancient, then either; though altogether unknown to us. That which is to be depended on in this matter is, that their first and most ancient language of the Latins, which was called Prisca by Saint Isidore in his Origenes, and which will have to have been in use, even in the time of Saturn and Janus, was made of the language of the Ancient Eolians, as we shall see here after.

That ancient Latin tongue now mentioned, was that of the Aborigines, and those people, according to the most learned of the Roman authors, came from the Peloponnesus. Upon which Dionysius Hallicarnasseus says very aptly, that if what they write concerning the Aborigines was true, they must needs come from Arcadia.  Quod si istorum Sana est Narration, non possuni esse Coloni alterius Generis quam Arcadici.  

Now the Aborigines being, according to his opinion, descended from the Arcadians of Peloponnesus, it is not to be wondered at, that the language of the ancient Latin was so like that of the old, Eolians, which chiefly prevailed in Arcadia.

Seeing their for the language of the Aborigines of Italy, who were esteem to be first Latins was for the most part made all that of the aliens of Greece, it clearly


follows that the ancient Eolick tongue could neither have its name nor origin from Eolus, the eldest son of Hellenus, as Jamblicus after other Greek authors, will have it. The reason is plain, the Aborigines were many ages in being, not only before the time of Hellenus and his son Eolus, but even before that of Cecrops and Deucalion. Hence it is, and I take it to be an observation and never made by any other before me, that the Latins never called the people of Greece, Hellenes, which yet is the name they gave themselves ; but always Grai or Gaeci. Because the Aborigines were people long before Deucalion came to settle in Greece, and that his son Hellenus gave the name of Hellenes to the inhabitants. They were before called {} or else {}

 This name the ancient Latins retained, Having not heard their fathers ever mention that of Hellenes, which the Grecians had not till after the reign of Hellenus and his children. This remark which very distinctly shows the Antiquity of the Eolic tongue, should be well taken notice of.

But here comes another of much greater importance, it relates to the same Eolic tongue, and plainly makes out that it has borrowed and Infinity of things of the Celtic or Gaulish language. And to the end it may not be sought, that I would either impose upon the world, or speak at random only, I shall produce several words of the ancient Eolic language, which could come from no other than the Celtae, even when they


went by the name of Titans, and we're masters of all grease. I might in this place shut down all the numerals, from 1 to 10, or rather 20, from 20 to a hundred, and so on to a thousand. The two languages agree so well in this, that there is no room to contest it. These numbers we may perhaps produce in another place, that the reader made the better judge of them ; however by the way let me ask from whence >>with so much Greek and Latin to follow, I supply the print from the book:<<

<< which signifies Five?


 << to signifie Twelve, from

<< show the Likeness there is between them

<< cause the Celtae still use the Word Gain or Guin

Guin for the same and from thence by the way because the Celtae still use the word Gain or Guin for the same, and from thence by the way Baragoin in that Language, properly signifies a man that speaks ill, because he does not but begin to speak, with asking for Bread and wine, that are the chief necessities of life. For the word Goin signified wine amongst the Gauls; so Bara did Bread,


their present satisfaction do no more than peruse the table annexed to this book, and there they will meet with about a hundred Greek words, which are manifestly borrowed from the Celtic tongue, which is still a living language in some parts of Europe, as is well known to many learned Men.

Those who are so fond of the Greek tongue, and indeed, too, much prejudiced in favor of it, will not fail to say upon this occasion, that the Celtae borrow these words, and many more of it ; and that it is not likely that the Grecians, who were so polite of people, should borrow so much of Barbarians ; but this objection, which is only a specialist one, without any solidity, is easily answered.

In the first place you may see with half an eye that the Celtic Words, which I have produced, are more simple than the Greek ones, seeing most of them are no other than mono-syllables, whereas the other are by-syllables ; and if so, they are not so frequent. It's there for plain enough, that the Greek words have been taken from the Celtic, and not the Celtic them. For it is a general rule almost in all languages, that the longer and larger words are derived from the short and more simple ones. But here comes on a second and decisive answer.

The Greeks toward the Early times of the post dilluvian world, I speak of the days of Abraham, and the other Patriarchs, were for above 300 years together


under The Dominion of the Titans, from whom the Celtae came, for as I have often said already, Uranus, their Prince, Saturn, his son and his grandson, Jupiter, rained over and among the Grecians in those very ancient times. The language of those people, who value themselves so much, had then no manner of politeness in it, then that of The Barbarians, for so they were pleased to call all other nations. But supposing it had been as polite and neat as afterwards it proved, it had been impossible for the Grecians, when they were necessitated to submit to the Yoke of the conquerors, not to receive also, much of their language. For in a word, it has always been experience, that those who have had power enough to make others submit to their Dominion, have at the same time subjected them to their language, at least wise in many respects, as well as to their laws and customs. If you would but call to mind what I have said before of the Spartans and Lacedemonians, you would be convinced that the most famous Grecians assume the customs and manners of the Titans, and there is no doubt then to be made, but that they also adopted the words of their language. The ancient Latins did the same thing, that's before noted, and so the Grecians in doing of this were not singular.

But if not withstanding all these reasons, which seem to be so firm and convincing, there may be some so opinionative as never to believe them, unless they have at least the authority, or rather confession of some learned Greek to back the matter. We shall forthwith Endeavor to give them plenary Satisfac-


-tion in this particular. I hope they will not reject the testimony of a famous man, but one very zealous for the honor of his language, who know all the politeness of it, and loved and cultivated more than any Greek whatsoever. I speak of Plato. This philosopher, as much as he is idolized at his native language was by the very power of Truth forest in one of his books to acknowledge that the Grecians took several words from the barbarians and that even in his Cratylus, which is a dialogue, where any treats on purpose of the etymology of a great many Greek words. It's very well known he had no better success in his understanding than Varro, in what remains we have of his upon the Latin tongue. But that is nothing to the purpose we come now to the confession of this famous Greek, in searching the origin of these two words: {} Ignis & Aqua, i.e. Fire and Water.

He confesses at first he was hard put to it to make a discovery ; and as he could find no footsteps for their origin in the Greek, he was forced to seek it amongst The Barbarians, as knowing the Grecians took a great many words from them. Reor equidem, speaking in the name of Socrates, Multa Nomin Graecos a Barbaris habuisse; and adds, that else it would be to no purpose to seek for the etymology of these words in the Greek tongue. Then he comes to own that the word {} must necessarily have been taken from The Barbarians ; saying, Vide itaq; ne nomen hoc {} Barbaricum sit neque enim facile est istud Graecae linguae


linguae accommodare. At last he confesses it to be Phrygian, whose people pronounced it almost in the same manner as the Grecians. He afterwards add, that it must be so in respect to {} which in his opinion were also taken from the Phrygians, as well as many others. Constatq; says he, ita hoc Phryges nominare, parum quid declinantes, sicut & vocem {Id est, Aqua & canes aliaq; permulta. Plato ingeniously confesses that all that is true; Vere haec sunt. So that there is no room left to doubt it.

Its owned that these three words came from the Barbarians; and though Plato were to have denied it, which he does not, it must for all that be true. But he is mistaken in making them al lthree to be Phrygian, for there is only the word {}, Fire, which is so, and therefore we find it at this day in the Teutonic language. For the Germans say Feur, and some Saxons Far for Fire. As for the other two, {}  They were taken from the Celtic, for the first, by transposing the u comes from dour, which among the Celtae signifies water; and I find some of them anciently said Ydor, that signified the same thing. As for {} Its derived from Cun, Canis, or the plural Coun, Dogs in the Celtic tongue. Plato therefore was not mistaken, in sayig that these three words, and a great many more came from the Barbarians. Had Aristotleís book, which he wrote upon this subject, under the title of Nomina Barbarica, been handed down to our time, we should perhaps


have met with things upon this subject, which we are now utter strangers.

Lastly, why should those who are so much baffled in favour of the Greek tongue, scruple to own that it has been beholden to the Barbarians, since it cannot be denied but that it took its name from then; that is, from Hellenus and his children, the descendants of Deucalion. For the Greeks themselves called their Language no other than {} Lingua Hellinica, and a Grecian among them is not called {}, but {} Hellen; they taking a pride in this name, that they have so carefully adopted of being descended from Hellenus, who was a foreigner, and a Barbarian by descent, as well as his father Decucalion. In the mean time Jamblicus informs us that some authors averred, The Greek, named the Hellinic tongue, came from this Deucalion: Quidam perhebent, says he, Linguam tum Graecanicam, tum etiam AEolicam, Deucalionis Donum esse & Munus. If Deucalion made this present to the Greeks that came after him, those who are prejudice in their favour, have no cause to believe that say, that they have taken nothing from strangers, whom they were to call Barbarians.

Before I close up this chapter concerning the Greeks and their language; I must not forget to observe that they two names they went by anciently, that is, before the time of Hellenus, who affected to have them call Hellenes, were {} Graii, and {} Graeci, as before noted, and that both these signified properly, no more than Veteres, or Antiqui, Old, Ancient. For the


true Greeks were looked upon to be the ancient inhabitants of the country. And I am very much mistaken if the name of Eolians did not imply the same thing, though there may be some difficulty in the explanation of it. But enough of the Affinity between the Greek and Celtic languages, let us know come to that of the Latins.

End chapter 2

Chapter III (3)

Of the ancient Language of the Aborigines, since called Latins.

Before I come to give my thoughts of the language used by the people of Italy, anciently called Aborigines, and afterwards Latins, I shall in the first place premise somewhat concerning the origin of them. Having very sedulously examined whatever the Learned have said upon this account, I have reason to believe that these ancient people came from the Ausones. In short, when Elian, an author well-known, speaks of them, he lets us plainly know that they were the first, and consequently, the most ancient inhabitants of Italy ; his words are these:

says 185 below maybe 195

Satisfaction In this particular. I hope they will not reject the testimony of a famous man, but one very zealous for the honor of his language, who knew all the politeness of it, and loved and cultivated it more than any Greek whatsoever. I speak of Plato. This philosopher, as much as he idolized his native language, was by the very power of Truth forced in one of his books to acknowledge that the Grecians took several words from The Barbarians, even that of his Cratylus, which is a dialogue, wherein he treats on purpose of the etymology of a great many Greek words.

It's very well known he had no better success in his undertaking then Varro, and what remains we have of his upon the Latin tongue. But that is nothing to the purpose, we now come to the confession of his famous Greek, and searching the origin of these two words,

Greek and Latin

He confesses at first, he was hard put to it to make the discovery ; and as he could find no footsteps for their origin in the Greek, he was forced to seek it amongst the Barbarians, as knowing the Grecians took a great many words from them.

and adds, that else it would be to no purpose to seek for the entomology of these words in the Greek tongue. Then he comes to own that the word


Must necessarily have been taken from the Barbarians; saying:







Chap. 3
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189   g1 

c1   Pulsisq; Ausonibus, quitum Inhabitabant, ipsi sedes posuerun :

c2   Superiori tempore Graeci Hesperiam aut Ausoniam, cam vocabant : Indigene Saturniam:




   c1   nam cum oscorum Gens interierit, formo/surmo (F not certain in scan) eorum apud Romanos restat ;







tera in Augurum Libreis Scripta cum Runo,












c1   Curis est sabine hasta;

c2   Unde Romulus Quirinus, qia eam ferebat, dictus est.














Chap. 4
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Chap. 5
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Chap. 6
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Chap. 7
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Book 3


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