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On Language Origins and Changes



I am just starting this out and apologize that it is far from complete. But getting it started is half the battle and makes it easier to add things as I discover them.

I thought I would share what I have found in my many hours and years of research in Archaeology and History so that others might understand why words and names that seem different, may not be different. Most languages are mixed with different cultures, DNA and breeding, and the resulting multi-lingual aspects that add many words or replace some words with other words. Even the alphabets change as culture mix. Often new amalgam culture result from mixing.

Some languages have endured better than others. But the end result is that a number of similar sounds will have different letter shapes representing them in various languages. If you know the common changes, you will see that names are far more similar or more related than what many might realize.



Who Invented the 1st Alphabet?
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According to Authorities, its the Phoenicians:

Phoenician/Canaanite   Phoenician (Kana'nīm)

The Phoenician alphabet developed from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, during the 15th century BC. Before then the Phoenicians wrote with a cuneiform script. The earliest known inscriptions in the Phoenician alphabet come from Byblos and date back to 1000 BC. The Phoenician alphabet was perhaps the first alphabetic script to be widely-used - the Phoenicians traded around the Mediterranean and beyond, and set up cities and colonies in parts of southern Europe and North Africa - and the origins of most alphabetic writing systems can be traced back to the Phoenician alphabet, including Greek, Etruscan, Latin, Arabic and Hebrew, as well as the scripts of India and East Asia.

Notable features

Used to write

Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language which originated in about the 11th century BC in what is now Lebannon, Syria and Israel, an area then known as Pūt in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, Phoenicia in Greek and Latin.

Phoenician spread around the Mediterranean, particularly to Tunisia, southern parts of the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal), Malta, southern France and Sicily, and was spoken until the 1st century AD.

A variant of Phoenician, known as Punic, was spoken in Carthage, a Phoenician colony in what is now Tunisia, until the 6th century AD.

The native name for the language was (dabari-m) Pōnnīm/Kana'nīm, which means "Punic/Canaanite (speech)"

Truth1 >> This source says 1000 BC to 1100 BC, roughly, by the Phoenicians. Our Next source will be Wikipedia.


Wikipedia: Phoenicians
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Wikipedia: Phoenician alphabet

Origin

Further information: Proto-Sinaitic script and Proto-Canaanite script

The earliest known alphabetic (or "proto-alphabetic") inscriptions are the so-called Proto-Sinaitic (or Proto-Canaanite) script sporadically attested in the Sinai and in Canaan in the late Middle and Late Bronze Age. The script was not widely used until the rise of new Semitic kingdoms in the 13th and 12th centuries BC.

Truth1 >> I am aware of the Sinai script in Egypt, in the Sinai region. Its a fairly recent discovery, maybe 30 or 40 years old at best, or at least, till it was published to the public. Now they say, and I believe it, that some of this Sinai script was found in Canaan in the late Middle Bronze Age and into the Late Bronze age. But such samples are rare until 1200-1300 BC. These few small facts are going to be very important very soon in this article.

The Phoenician alphabet is a direct continuation of the "Proto-Canaanite" script of the Bronze Age collapse period. The so-called Ahiram epitaph, from about 1200 BC, engraved on the sarcophagus of king Ahiram in Byblos, Lebanon, one of five known Byblian royal inscriptions, shows essentially the fully developed Phoenician script,[6] although the name "Phoenician" is by convention given to inscriptions beginning in the mid 11th century BC.[7]

Spread of the alphabet and its social effects

Further information: History of the alphabet

Beginning in the 9th century BC, adaptations of the Phoenician alphabet -- such as Greek, Old Italic, Anatolian, and the Paleohispanic scripts -- were very successful. The alphabet's success was due in part to its phonetic nature; Phoenician was the first widely used script in which one sound was represented by one symbol, which meant that there were only a few dozen symbols to learn. This simple system contrasted with the other scripts in use at the time, such as cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs, which employed many complex characters and were difficult to learn.[8]

Another reason for its success was the maritime trading culture of Phoenician merchants, which spread the use of the alphabet into parts of North Africa and Europe.[9] Phoenician inscriptions have been found in archaeological sites at a number of former Phoenician cities and colonies around the Mediterranean, such as Byblos (in present-day Lebanon) and Carthage in North Africa. Later finds indicate earlier use in Egypt.[10]

Phoenician had long-term effects on the social structures of the civilizations that came in contact with it. Its simplicity not only allowed it to be used in multiple languages, but it also allowed the common people to learn how to write. This upset the long-standing status of writing systems only being learned and employed by members of the royal and religious hierarchies of society, who used writing as an instrument of power to control access to information by the larger population.[11] The appearance of Phoenician disintegrated many of these class divisions, although many Middle Eastern kingdoms, such as Assyria, Babylonia and Adiabene, would continue to use cuneiform for legal and liturgical matters well into the Common Era.

Modern rediscovery

The Phoenician alphabet was first uncovered in the 17th century, but up to the 19th century its origin was unknown. It was at first believed that the script was a direct variation of Egyptian hieroglyphs.[12] This idea was especially popular due to the recent decipherment of hieroglyphs. However, scholars could not find any link between the two writing systems, nor to hieratic or cuneiform. The theories of independent creation ranged from the idea of a single man conceiving it, to the Hyksos people forming it from corrupt Egyptian.[13] This latter notion is reminiscent of the eventual discovery that the proto-Sinaitic alphabet was inspired by the model of hieroglyphs.

Development

The Phoenician letter forms shown here are idealized: actual Phoenician writing was cruder and more variable in appearance. There were also significant variations in Phoenician letter forms by era and region.

When alphabetic writing began in Greece, the letter forms used were similar but not identical to the Phoenician ones and vowels were added because the Phoenician alphabet did not contain any vowels. There were also distinct variants of the writing system in different parts of Greece, primarily in how those Phoenician characters that did not have an exact match to Greek sounds were used. The Ionic variant evolved into the standard Greek alphabet, and the Cumae variant into the Latin alphabet, which accounts for many of the differences between the two. Occasionally, Phoenician used a short stroke or dot symbol as a word separator.[14]

The chart shows the graphical evolution of Phoenician letter forms into other alphabets. The sound values often changed significantly, both during the initial creation of new alphabets and from pronunciation changes of languages using the alphabets over time.

The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet is an abjad[3] consisting of 22 letters, all consonants, with matres lectionis used for some vowels in certain late varieties. It was used for the writing of Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language, used by the civilization of Phoenicia.

The Phoenician alphabet is derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs.[4] It became one of the most widely used writing systems, spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it evolved and was assimilated by many other cultures. The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is a local variant of the Phoenician alphabetical script.[5] Another derivative script is the Aramaic alphabet, which was the ancestor of the modern Arabic script. The Modern Hebrew script is a stylistic variant of the Aramaic script. The Greek alphabet (and by extension its descendants, such as Latin, Cyrillic, Runic, and Coptic) was also derived from Phoenician.

As the letters were originally incised with a stylus, most of the shapes are angular and straight, although more cursive versions are increasingly attested in later times, culminating in the Neo-Punic alphabet of Roman-era North Africa. Phoenician was usually written from right to left, although there are some texts written in boustrophedon.


Truth1 >> I'm going to tell you a quick story about Joseph, Jacob's son in the Bible. By Bible dating, Joseph, at age 30, 1717 BC by Bible calculations, is appointed by Pharaoh, likely Amenemhet III in my opinion, to administrate the gathering of grain for storage, knowing that 7 years of plenty now was going to be followed by 7 years of brutal famine. The said result was that when the famine hit, it hit hard and all the Mediterranean sought out Egypt for grain.

Did you know that pretty much every ancient culture and language of that region has an accounting of grain being stored for 7 years? And each recalls 7 years of famine. It was not ordinary famine. It was severe. That is why they all remembered it. And Egypt is renown for that long established tradition of grain storage of one fifth of their grain, 20%, as a tax to Egypt, each year. In fact it is not clear just how far back that tradition started. Further than they can remember. Further than records record.

Pharaoh appoints Joseph over the entirety of Egypt and the grain gathering and storage and when the famine hits, Joseph ran the negotiations and trading with foreign nations for grain. In the dried up Egyptian Delta excavated by Manfred Bietak of the U of Vienna, Austria, found several million (that's not a typo!) big amphora jars near to Avaris, the administration center in the times of Famine, before the islands settled into the sea adjacent to Alexandria. The trade that brings 2 or 3 million big amphora is no small amount of trade.

Would administration and book keeping be neccessary? I guess to to hell, it would be! Correspondence would be substantial, too. Joseph would handle that, too. Oh, and those turquoise mines in the Sinai with the Proto-Sinaitic script, which was not Egyptian, by any means. But wait just a damn minute. What group was this Proto-Sinaitic? Who was around that had this at that time? And how did they get it, and when?

I got the answers to all of your questions. If not by Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, then certainly by Joseph, who if he was guided by God, would need the perfect ultimate form of recording and sending messages and accounting. And what form would that be? I'm so glad you asked. Allow me!


The Perfect Writing System - Bar none!
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Carving in stone is not fast or easy. Recording in Cuneiform with pointed styluses into moist clay is not fast as one letter can require 5 or 6 impressions with a stylus. Then to make it last, you had to burn lots of wood from trees to bakd the clay. Wood was very valuable for carts, ships, houses and more. And the amount need to bake clay is considerable. The Hattusa were renown for their baked clay records. And they are not Hittites as most Academics say. They are proto-Germanics, sons of Gomer, Grandson of Noah.

Really, by comparison to these typical methods, writing with ink and quills on sheep parchment or papyrus is on many orders faster for writing and ease of storage as well as making copies. No excessive fuel needed nor great labor. It was the biggest thing to come along in the twilight of the Middle Bronze age and into the Late Bronze, collapsing throughout the massive region, near to 1200 BC and material culture and trade would disappear and not return for 400 years !!!

But don't let me off the hook easy. What evidence do I have for wide-spread use of writing in Sinaitic script or nearly so, and how long ago? And who? Oh no, you got me backed into a corner. Whatever will I do? Ha ha! I got ya right where I want you, right on the ropes begging for mercy. The Ref won't let me finish the job. So I'll keep the gloves on for you and let the Ref count to 8.

Moses made great use of Hebrew Script, who academics say come from Phonecia, which was Tyre and Sidon, in Canaan, a vassal territory of Egypt until Akhenaten. Joseph like administered his possibly God given or at least passed on, alphabetic script in order to effectively manage a huge amount of trade commerce in behalf of Pharaoh. This goes back to 1717 BC. I say that year was during the reign of Amenemhet III.

But over this time, many from other nations were settling in the Delta region so that it was over-run and developed into 4 to 5 small separate kingdoms in the Delta region. In time, even Israel was overtaken in the Delta at Tell-el-Yahudieh (Avaris) by what the bible says obscurely was Assyria, who if so, would be the Hyksos, possibly shepherd kings. Whether this name derived from the fact that Israel were all shepherds or if those of Assyria were somewhat Nomadic, and relying on the grazing and herding of animals as part of their survival strategy and life style.

Joseph died in 1637 BC. Moses was born in 1573 BC, 64 years after Joseph died. Moses confronts Amenhotep IV, and takes Israel out of Egypt for good. To cover over the complete destruction of Egypt by the 10 plagues of God thru Moses and the loss of a 600 chariot army, including Amenhotep IV, the remaining court of Egypt attempted the coverup to fend off attacks, but having a replacement become Amenhotep IV, converting to a new god (the Aten) and religion (of the Aten) and a new name for the Pharaoh, Akhenaten, and becoming somewhat of a hermit in the desert, and leaving matters to his court and administration when possible and also sharing the court and throne with his wife, an unprecedented move, so that she could conduct affairs directly so that if someone should remember Amenhotep IV, they could be kept away from him, so as to discover it was not really him. The city of Ahketaten was in a remote area so that dignitaries would not see the decrepit weak vulnerable condition of Egypt.

And so Moses slow leads and conducts Israel to Canaan, who was at least familiar Proto-Sinai script from earlier times, or God trained him in it while being on Mt. Sinai for 40 days. While in the desert at Mt. Sinai, Moses is fed dictation by God. Many instructions are written down. History is recorded as they battle enemies when nearing Canaan. Even matters that enable a chronological accounting are present. All this recorded in a way most effective and efficient.

If you prefer to imagine it was done in a more ordinary way, that is your business, but the source would still have to be Israel. They have recorded history and bureaucracy to give the claims credibility.


Supporting-Extraordinary-Evidence     S-E-E Do you SEE?
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Now I am not asking you to believe in Moses or my Egypt explanation, either. But I will insist that the written record of Israel/Moses/God/Jehovah is valid and credible and by far, the best evidence and contender as the the first and greatest inventor of the written alphabetic language. They are exclusively responsible for the alphabet.

Most people are not aware of the great historical accounting for what is often without any other account. The very darkest and obscure times are revealed in the Bible. Many events are confirmed by other nations as well, from maybe 1000 BC and onward.

Israel has a claim on writing that has no competition whatsoever! Who else has the quality and volume of records that Israel/Judah has? Now the clincher. You're going down for the 8 count!

I have only revealed to you, half the story. That's right! Writing is important but every bit as important, if not a whole lot more, is the solid bureaucracy built into the system of worship and administration of first, the temple in the form of a tent and walled off court around it with an altar and though not described in any detail or specific mention, the appointed priest call whose job was the keeping of all the scrolls and records, including any scrolls offered by prophets and written history, too. Careful genealogies were kept.

This religious order, a bureaucracy, really, was the key to keeping and preserving, and passing on a living dynamic record of Israel, God, the Prophets and the nation. And Solomon then built a temple by the will of God to further establish the Bureaucratic religious Priesthood.

From the writing of Moses, the Priesthood was supported by the rituals and observances, most particularly the support of the priest with a tenth of all their live stock and food harvesting crops of Israel.

In order for a bureaucracy to survive, it must have funding. No funding? No recording and record keeping! Writing is only half the battle. Maintaining a scriptorium and library and archives are essential for the success and continuity of such an endeavor and not one other nation could begin to make any claim that could even begin to rival Jehovah and Israel. Those nations would get their @$$e$ kicked into the dark ages.

Israel and God have exclusive claims to the most remarkable system to preserve a sophisticated Bureaucracy Archive and operation. As well, in keeping with His battle with His Legal opponent/adversary, Satan, God maintains a subtle but very effective way to keep His word in written form to inform any person who can clearly see the brilliance and logic of such a recording operation spanning 3500 years, from 1493 BC, Exodus to the present day, 2018 AD, 3525 years to 2018.

My opinion is that Joseph would have to have had the alphabet to administer such a huge trading and accounting system for Egypt. Pharaoh would fund it all, accountants and recorders and interpreters. We have no record to prove this but it could not have been done if what I said, was not present. And given Joseph serving Pharaoh  at 1717 BC, there is no other contender for the alphabet and certainly any books of accounting of trade would never last and as the Delta was taken over by immigrants, records would have little of survival.

But to be on the safe side, the priesthood archive system of Moses and its historical record have no other peer or competition. Phoenicians can claim maybe 1050 BC, compared to Moses, 1493 BC. That's 450 years earlier than the Phoenicia. Who else recorded the institution of the Egyptian collection of grain at 20% and the 7 year famine that even the other nations remember by tradition and folklore, but the Bible remembers in far greater detail. And if the phoenicians had some contract with early Israel, as might have been possible with the tribe of Dan and with Philistines.

Bible records add up to near 1122 BC when Israel was forced to serve the Philistines. This would be near 50 years after Eric Cline's 1177 BC date as the a good place to demark the collapse of the late Bronze Age. So those events and times seem quite reasonable to me. In many respects, the 1493 Exodus due to Akhenaten's fall, created a collapse of the Canaan Vassal states belong to Egypt prior to 1493 BC.

Most date Akhenaten to near 1350 BC but this conflicts with 1629 BC destruction of Santorini-Mt. Thera Eruption that wiped out the legendary home of Jupiter/Jove on Crete with its brilliant engineering for heating, cooling, plumbing and a huge store house built somewhat like a maze (Labyrinth anyone?) to make attack upon it unlikely to succeed and their strong naval empire made that unlikely. As well, the 20th dynasty following Ramses III, who barely held off an invasion of sea peoples, was the last Pharaoh to show substantial military ability and stability. After that, the records and names of the remaining pharaohs of that Dynasty were unaccounted for, other than how many there were.

We don't know how long that period was and it clearly experience a collapse, even as every nation around the Mediterranean did, as this was the time of the start of the Late Bronze Age Collapse. I find it baffling that academics do not hold this time period with far more reservation and uncertainty. Time, more than any other, should be suspect. But no! What could have gone wrong then? A lot. Were those really kings/pharaohs? Or were they surviving local Godfathers/gangs taking credit for more than they really deserved.

This time is really unaccounted for in any way and one can not assume anything. Given that the 21st dynasty priests had to rescue the looted remains of the  Pharaonic mummies from their desecrated plundered tombs in the Valley of the Kings give good evidence that law and order had been absent since Ramses IV of the 20th dynasty to sometime into the 21st dynasty.

As well, the Bronze age collapse was also recorded indirectly by described conditions and new settlers, the Philistines in the book of Judges that suggests a great breakdown in power and great migrations and upheavals. As record of time and events, there is nothing to rival the Bible. Academia is completely without evidence.

Their chronology relies on wishes and hopes and dreams . . .  and maybe some hate of the Bible and God. I do not make that charge lightly. Academia has become a Leftist nightmare. Evolution and Atheism have always been favorites in the intellectual phonies of Academia. To admit the bible offers a credible possible accounting of time and history would be unthinkable and never allowable. Satan would have a fit ;-)

But to restate, I think the Chronology around the 20th Dynasty of Egypt is missing about 140 years. This insertion puts Akhenaten at 1493 BC very likely. And with Philistines interacting with Israel as their rulers, they likely would have exchanged some language communication and agreements and Israel would have had their writing system that the Philistines might have readily recognized as very useful and Canaanites, too. All this near to 1122 BC. Saul becomes the 1st king of Israel in 1097 BC, and we will round that to 1100 BC. By this time, the Collapse of the Late Bronze age was well under way. This also makes the date some give to the appearance of the Phoenicians' alphabet at 1050 BC, matches quite well.

But what they leave out is, by this time, 500 years of possible existence of Israel's alphabet and Priesthood/from the time of Joseph, 1700 BC or Moses at 1500 BC.

So the Ref Raises my arm into the air, and says, The winner by a knockout!  Truth1. Then the guys in white uniforms come in and carry the knocked out academics out of the arena, who careers are ruined and humiliated.

OK, I just had to have little fun. But for sure, the birth of writing seems to focus on the Greater Mediterranean Sea area, the shipping cross roads and highway of that region.

Part of my inspiration for staring this article was my work in transcribing work of Paul Yves Pezron. His book is masterpiece of history, research, and linguistics. It is without peer and that is why I felt it very necessary to spend the time to make this book available and easy to read, for free, for any wanting to bother. So now I want to show/start with my own research into languages and origins. And I came across something recently. That I will now share. It struck a nerve with me, after reading what Pezron said about the ancient Celtic and Germanic histories that also have an effect on history and the Bronze age as well.

One more thing to clarify. Israel invented the alphabet, and the Phoenicians picked up up from Israel, possibly quite near to the time of Saul, David, and Solomon with Hiram or those just before him, of Tyre/Sidon, the Phoenicians of Canaan. They would much later settle Carthage in North Africa.

The Phoenicians likely interacted with the tribes of Javan, also great sailors and traders, and these would carry the alphabet to all the Mediterranean. It is quite clear that the alphabet was unique to the Mediterranean and spread only thru that region for the longest time.


The Etruscan Mystery
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The title and link:   What Etruscan Sounded Like - and how we know    NativLang    https://www.youtube.com/user/NativLang

published Nov. 17, 2017
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtzg5uEpiOI     

Here is what struck me in this video. The time of the video pic takes you to where I got it. What it showed was how the majority of our modern English alphabet looks just like the Etruscan, which is a very old culture with not too much known about it. The Etruscans wrote from right to left, just like Israel did and many others. But English goes left to right. But if you flip one or the other, they appear to have nearly the same letters.

Just above, you got A B half of C, D E F I K L M N O a small r, another M, maybe q P backwards S? or Z? T Y X

out of 26 letters of ours, 19 of them are found above, 2 or 3 possible others. Clearly, there is a very common origin. Everyone was copying everyone because the idea was brilliant, regardless of who it came from. All the Mediterranean languages bear lots of common symbols. Its also clear that this was the birth place region of the alphabet.

You will also note that the Etruscan is far more ancient then modern English and that they wrote right to left as all the early letters seemed to. I think Greek was left to right. If I am wrong, I will correct it. Latin was left to right. The civilizations of the Mediterranean had a common source of formidable military power, commercial power and advanced engineering and technology in evidence at ancient Crete, Mohendaro and Harrappa in India, whose cultures are somewhat advanced, very old and share some commonalities to Crete.

Those 2 Indian cities were likely used as ports to the Indian Ocean and by way of the gulf of Arabia and the gulf of Aquaba and the Red Sea uniting the Mediterranean with the Indian ocean and with the Atlantic Ocean, too. The Bronze age was the golden age for the mighty Celtic and Germanic (Phrygian & Persian) empires. These made up the inspiration for the ancient gods so obscure now, were it not for Paul Yves Pezron's history and language study.

My personal study leads me to believe that the first blow to this Celtic Germanic empire was the destruction of Crete (1629 BC they say. It used to be 1628 BC.) by a huge Tsunami that essentially wiped out the very advanced culture that had given refuge to Jupiter a.k.a. Zeus, who was raised in Crete and became very powerful. He was the youngest of the sons of Saturn/Sadorn. Saturn resided and controlled from Italy in its very early days, after his son Jupiter chased Saturn out of the Mid-East.

I also strongly recommend another excellent language channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNhX3WQEkraW3VHPyup8jkQ

Lang Focus    I have watched a lot of this guys's videos. He is superb.




Related Articles

This is THE most important history book of the history of the beginnings of Western Culture, Europe, and even the Mid-East Slavic nations some, of the legends of the ancient western cultures' gods, who were real people, representing the power structure of early times, when peoples of the northern Russian steps, who dominated the Bronze Age of say 2000 BC to 1200 BC, particularly around the Mediterranean. These people had strongly influenced all the languages around the Mediterranean. But in terms of the alphabet, I believe the Hebrews of Israel were the originators of that brilliant concept/style, though I do personally believe the gift came from Jehovah, the God of Israel, in the time of Joseph, about 1700 BC. But the alphabet flourished in all the Mediterranean nations because of the Mediterranean Sea and those that sailed its waters. I have nearly completed transforming the book below into searchable text, from the printed pages of 1706 AD.

In doing so, I make a great work available to the world for free and easy access. The honors go to Mr. Pezron, a man of great study and accomplishment in the ancient languages. He must have had a good deal of reading under his belt. And most tragic is that so few are aware of this great work, not only to history, but also linguistics and language development.

Paul Yves Pezron -- The Antiquities of Nations;     more particularly of the Celtae or Gauls, taken to be originally the same people as our ancient Britains.















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