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1st uploaded Mar. 27, 2013
updated Aug. 10, 2014

 Learning from Crete

Why It's Important!
A Brief History of Crete and Its Circumstances
Related Bible References
Cretan Mercantilism and Engineering
Trade and Commerce
Minoan Traits Examined
The Labyrinth a Fort?
Modern Day Lessons
Tracing History
Secrecy Vital Always
Networks Are Strength
Moral and Ethical Lessons
Patterns in Strategy and Planning
You Have a Very Dan-gerous Enemy
Britain Resembles Crete
Control Is Designed
Continuity From Crete to the UK
England Since 1066

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Why It's Important!

I believe there are some very important lessons in the history of Crete. Principles that are discernible. There are things in the historical features of Crete that should be understood and I have not seen readily recognized by others. Crete was known by Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews as Caphtor and its people the Caphtorim and possibly mixed with Philistines as well. But academics call the island Crete, but the people are called Minoans, after King Minos, of legendary Greek fame. I'll tell you a bit more about Minoans and Minos in a minute.

Crete will prove to be an island without any apparent defenses. But this does not mean they were not well defended. But Cretan defenses were more subtle but still very effective. They give political, military, social, and economic insight that has many implications for empires that followed and even for our own day as well. You'll be surprised maybe. But you won't hear this stuff highlighted in most, if any, academic publications. That is why I am covering it here, because i do believe these lessons are important.

Do we treat all the people in our society near equal. No. All nations today have very stratified societies with strong divisions in class or caste. But Crete seemed to be much more balanced and even in comparison. Did they know something we did not?

Cretans lived for 900 years without a single disturbance or attack while much of the rest of the world was almost constantly at war. How did they do this? And when they left, it was only due to environmental circumstances. They never received an attack from another nation as far as we know or can tell.

What was the key to their success? How did they sustain themselves? They had advanced engineering in their homes and around.. Indeed, if one were to accept the tale of Atlantis as true, perhaps no civilization might better qualify as a candidate for Atlantis than the Minoan Cretans before Mt. Thera erupted.

So we need to figure out what went on and how they avoided so much that plagued everyone else. What is revealed is rather remarkable as I see it.

Now as for Minos and the Minoans, there is a book of ancient history written by a French Monk:
Paul Yves Pezron (Doctor of Divinity and Abbot of la Charmoye, France)
The Antiquities of Nations; more particularly of the Celtae or Gauls, taken to be originally the same people as our ancient Britains.
Translated into English by D. Jones, 1706.

I link the above, also on my website but in incomplete form. I work on it as I get time, but have little of that right now. You can by the original fascimile copy of the 1706 publication for about $40, when I bought it maybe 2 years ago. Its an amazing and monumental work that resurrects the Middle and Late Bronze Age Rulers of the world.

Were this book widely known and circulated, we would understand the times of 2100 BC - 1400 or 1200 BC much better than we do, Covering the Middle to Late Bronze Ages.

The Celts were the mighty empire that came down from the north with horses and chariots, and made use of ships as well in the Mediterranean. They were the 1st settlers in parts of Greece, as the Ionians, Dorians, and Aeolians. They began the Spartans. They had relatives who settled Crete, which founder was Cres or later Cures - Curete - Crete. They were the 1st to settle Italy. Some were likely from Crete that came into Italy and used the form of Crete as Curete, later Quirete, then Quiretes. A very ancient god of the Celts who all became the Greek gods we know better today. They also settled Spain, too, along with others. They ruled over Spain. They were likely the ones whose remnants are found on a mountain top in Turkey known as Hattusa because of their hats, I believe. Many have wrongly identified the Hattusa as Hittites but Hittites were descended from Canaanites.

They had invaded both Mesopotamia and Egypt at some point and for a time were the rulers of the world and legends were developed about their exploits. Their empire was vast and remarkable but they were likely done in by climate, which helped bring the Bronze Age to an end and usher in the Iron Age. So complete was the wipeout of this previous age that we have little left over to remember it by. Its like a deep dark past long forgotten in remote times. But enough exists about them in writers of ancient histories that we can put much back together to reconstruct some of what was lost in the remote past.

but for our discussion, what is important is that the 1st Cretans were Celtic tribes, who controlled the shipping boht directly nad indirectly, in the Mediterranean Sea to facilitate control of their vast empire held together by relatives of a dominant family of Celts, known as Acmon, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune, Mars, Mercury, Cres, Pluto, and corresponding Greek versions of those names as well. The family was extended and as well, many German tribes from Ashkenaz, son of Gomer, were involved with these Celts. So much so in my opinion, that I wonder how much different they were and suspect that as well, there had likely been some inter-marriages and the languages also seem to have many similarities in the dictionary/lexicon Pezron puts into Book 3 of his work.

But Gomer's sons were the start of a very impressive dominant (if not oppressive)) empire in that region of the world. From this empire came the first substantial shipping and trading of the Mediterranean, which scraps were later picked up and restarted by the Hamitic peoples such as the Phoenicians (Tyre-Sidon), Cyprians, Philistines, Caphtorim, who are often taken to be Minoans but that is wrong. But these later Sea peoples all came under the Phoenician-Carthaginian Empire that would rule till Rome finally defeated them for good around 146 BC.

So we are going to eventually look at that Phoenician empire as the first memorable empire to make superior use of shipping and trade, of navies and mercantilism, accomplished through a federation of networks with many different peoples and allies all over that region of the world and maybe far beyond. But to get things straight, the Minoan kingdom, a Celtic kingdom, was the founder of the Crete of so called Minoan culture. What the Cretans-Curetes and Celts (Jupiter in particular) founded on Crete is our first world history lesson.

A Brief History of Crete and Its Circumstances
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The Island of Crete, off the coast of Greece, in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, has a lot of significance for history and the Bible. It highlights some important understandings as to war and the military, strategy, business and trade along with territorial protection. The inhabitants of Crete, in what was typically called the Middle Bronze Age (abbreviated as MB or MBA typically), which I date from 2350 BC to 1200 BC. 2350 BC is the year of the Biblical flood, give or take a year or two, and 1200 BC is about the time of the collapse of the Middle/Late Bronze and the beginning of a dark age, so-called, which lasted till about 800 BC. There was a civilization on Crete before the flood but it was wiped out by the flood. I am concerned only with the people who came after.

Crete experienced a major volcanic eruption in 1628 BC, from the very close island volcano of Mt. Thera. The Thera eruption was the largest explosion since Mt. Toba in the Indonesian Islands, said to happen around 70,000 BP, and during the age of mankind. Given my faith in the Bible account, I place the eruption of Mt. Toba at 2350 BC, the time of the flood. But I should point out that science has found dates in Australia for this event around 25,000 BP. I have also seen 60,000 BP as well as dates in the 40-45,000 BP. I will deal with radiometric dating in another article coming someday soon I hope. But due to contamination of the environment with dead carbon released from beneath the earth's crust during volcanic and tectonic activity at the flood, the dates appear much older than they actually were/are.

But the Thera eruption/explosion temporarily caused the inhabitants of Crete to leave. They eventually came back and rebuilt but that did not last beyond 1450 BC, which just happens to be the approximate time of the Exodus. The eruption also caused tsunamis to inundate the coasts all around the Mediterranean. Pumice was found in a layer in the delta region of Egypt, near the reign of Thutmose III. The eruption likley caused mass migrations of the Biblical Caphtorim and Phillistines. Those 2 groups of people descended from Noah's son Ham, who in turn fathered Mizraim, who fathered Casluhim. It was through Casluhim that the Phillistines and Caphtorim sprung forth. Egyptians came from Mizraim. A number of cultures around the Mediterranean were from Ham. Canaanites, from which come Tyre, Sidon, who are better known to secular historians as Phoenicians. Carthaginians were Phoenicians who colonized North Africa, founding Carthage. They called Ham Hammon. Egyptians called him Ammon, removing the H and taking out an m to give us various spelled by academics as Amon : Amen : Amun. Amen was not a god that existed in Egypt or anywhere before the flood, but after the flood, He was the main god of most of his descendants.

The inhabitants of Crete in the early days of say, 2350 BC to 1700 BC or 1628 BC, was generally a time deep in history and one that we do not have a lot of information of, due to its being so remote in the past. Although not a dark age, per say, it might as well be. The Bible says it was the Caphtorim and Phillistines who inhabited this area and likely coastal Greece as well, but the books of Moses were written in 1491 BC or later and may reflect that time period. It could even be that later priests copying the text revealed the inhabitants of Crete nearer to 1200 BC, as the city of Israel in Egypt was identified as Rameses, who was also near to that time, rather than 1491 BC. After Thera blew, many started to migrate to the coast of Phoenicia, known to us as Biblical Canaan. They also tried to invade Egypt during the reign of Rameses III but had settled peacefully in North Egypt previously, during the reign of Amenemhet III and before the Exodus. They probably settled in many places around the Mediterranean. Amenemhet was a Pharaoh/King of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, in the 12th dynasty as listed by Manetho. I believe Amenemhet III was the pharaoh of Joseph, near to 1710 BC.

These Caphtorim and Phillistines are better known to academics and secular sources as the Greek named Minoans, after the legends of King Minos and his famous Labyrinth, which we will get to. But in reality, Minoans were likely of Celtic extraction. The Caphtorim were likely of about Rameses time, who reigned 12791213 BC by secular authorities, which I add 140 years to, to account for the period of darkness/chaos in Egypt in the 20th dynasty giving us 1419-1333 BC. AS well, if the Celtic empire fell near 1200 BC secular, then my darkness in Egypt makes it 1340 BC.

We will call them Minoans often in this article. As we try to peer deep into the past, we will see that there was an unknown script of a most ancient age found among Minoan ruins and artifacts. These tablets had a script on them called Linear A for which we know almost nothing about and have no decipherment for. My opinion of that Linear A would be Celtic/Germanic in form. Then follows Linear B, after 1450 BC, which has been deciphered and translated as a form of Greek. 

According to the Wikipedia, ( ), Linear A was used as a complete syllabary around 1900-1800 BC, but some evidence of "Trojan" Linear A discovered by Heinrich Schliemann and some Linear A marks on pottery in Lahun, Egypt of the 12th dynasty could push that time back to 2100-1900 BC. This coincides with the first Minoan palaces built on Crete. This is interesting for I find dates of this time to vary with Bible dates by as much as 200 years, with secular dates being later than Biblical dates. Events which indicate a flood and new settlement in various parts of Europe and Mid East will often show as 2200 or 2150, when the Bible would say 2350 (BC of course).

But that there is a Linear A linked with Troy is most interesting since Troy was made up of various Celtic, possibly Germanic and certainly Thracian (Tiras, son of Japeth) allies. This lends further likelihood of a Celtic Linear A. As well, we have some Linear A in the 12th dynasty of Egypt, of which Amenemhet III was the one carrying on extensive grain sales and trade in Egypt with all the surrounding nations. But the claim of 12th dynasty at 2100-1900 is not likely, since there is no solid link to date the 12th dynasty to and there was an Intermediate period between the 12th Middle Kingdom dynasty and the New Kingdom period. So while chronologies of the 18th dynasty are lacking years, the 12th dynasty has inflated accounting of years.

From here on in, when I say Minoan, I refer to the Celtic empire as being in power on Crete.

This is further interesting because the days of Peleg, born about 2250 BC, a hundred years after the flood, and who died at about 2000 BC, were said to be the days of the confusion of the languages. So sometime within that approximate period of 250 years, from 2250 to 2000 BC, the languages were changed. This might be why some ancient undeciphered languages such as Minoan Linear A, Harrapan script of western India, Sumerian of Mesopotamia and the like, possibly Hurrian as well, may have all been the same basic language presented in different scripts. So why the Linear A script and other such scripts ceased to be used, would otherwise be a complete mystery. For those convinced of the authenticity of the Bible, this will be no big stretch to accept as a good possibility.

It is equally possible that time of Linear A is so remote that we have little in evidence of it, due to the collapse of the Bronze Age and little to survive from it.

But Greek, related to Linear B, is said to be of Phoenician origin, Which we could easily say is a Semitic language, or even a Hamitic language, since the Egytptians, "Minoans," Canaanites, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, as well as possibly- the early MB people of Cyprus, more accurately Kyprus or Cuprus, which one could call Cupre, from where we sort of got the word Copper. Copper being the main component, along with some tin, to form the very strong alloy of Bronze.

But the Mediterranean, being a hotbed of tectonic and volcanic activity, proved to be quite volatile in those early times of Middle Bronze ages and so the inhabitants of Crete and surrounding islands such as Cyprus, Sardinia, Sicily, and Corsica, who likely all had some settlers who descended from Ham and maybe more particularly those of Casluhim from which the Phillistines and Minoans descend, migrated to places all around and also likely mixed in with other races so that distinctions and identifications were lost over time.

As well, Celtic Minoans may have had numerous close relations with the Hamitic peoples of the Bible. Celts may have ruled the area but also had to rely on networks and alliances.

Sons of Javan, whose father was Japheth, the son of Noah, were said to settle the coasts and isles. As best as I can tell, they entered and maybe exited the Mediterranean Sea and possibly used the Red Sea and gulf of Aqaba to spread throughout the Indian Ocean and on into the SE Asian Pacific with its vast number of islands. I note the name Java in the Indonesian Pacific. We might call them Javanese, even as the Chin are Chinese and Japan the Japanese. But regardless of speculation, Ionians, Dorians, and Aeolians are said to be Greeks, also said to descend from Javan. Whether this is so, or not, the early Greeks were much different looking in statuettes and statues than they were much later in classical Greek period and after, where they seem more white Caucasian than previously.

I remain skeptical of secular identifications.

Related Bible References
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Genesis chapter 10 lists all the descendants of Noah. Verses 6 and 13-20 tell of Ham, Mizraim, and Canaan and their descendants. 1 Chronicles chapter 1 also contains the same basic list of Noah's descendants. Verses 8, 11-16 tell of Ham and the descendants I speak of here. Beyond these, there are only 3 passages that refer to Caphtor, sometimes in association with the Phillistines. Of course, there are lots of accounts of the Philistines in 1 & 2 Samuel and some mention in Judges as well. But it is Caphtor in particular that we are interested in and though it is only 3 spurious scriptures that mention them, that is quite a bit more than many of the names in Genesis 1 get.

Moses was describing the various peoples and place in Deuteronomy and mentions an interesting circumstance in Deut. 2:23:
And the Avvites who lived in villages as far as Azzah, the Caphtorites coming out of
Caphtor destroyed them, and lived in their place."

The Bible, as written by Moses, was aware of the migration of the Caphtorim and how they came to be in Canaan, when they did not formerly live there. Caphtorim would likely have conquered and settled here near to Rameses, dating in the neighborhood of 1250 BC. Academics do not like the Bible suggesting that Philistines were to the north of Egypt in Southern Palestine/Canaan as they say the Philistines did not settle there that early.

But they might be better off to say we do not have evidence for it at this time. Further, they do not have a good means of even determining a time or be willing to admit there was an Exodus. But actually, there is a "Minoan" presence noted in the delta region of North Egypt and The Bible here in Deuteronomy also admits a Minoan as well as Caphtorite presence in Canaan. Philistines might have been included in the Caphtorim. Or it could be that the evidence for a discernable Philistine presence did not survive time and antiquity, as is the case for many historical observations.

Jeremiah 47:4  because of the day that comes to destroy all the Philistines, to cut off from Tyre and Sidon every survivor who helps. For Jehovah will plunder the Philistines, the rest of the coast of Caphtor .

Well, here we see a number of tribes descended from Ham, who seem to know each other well and help each other. It looks here like Jeremiah, under inspiration I might add, might be identifying the coast of Canaan bordering the East Mediterranean Sea as being generally and generically described as the coast of Caphtor. It could be the the Phillistines were a descendant group from the Caphtorim and may have looked more "Minoan" in their material culture in the earlier days before the 5 major cities of Philistia became established in the days of the Judges of Israel onward. But regardless, for me, the Bible is true and accurate when it says Philistines were in Canaan by 1491 BC. 1500 BC would be a good date to use when searching for an approximate date for an Exodus to show up.

[ My Bible dates only vary by 2 or 3 years with common accepted Chronologies such as Ussher or Jones, and their works are very good. Our variances come from the reigns of the kings of Judah and how there are accounted for and are not really important given the only slight variance between any of us. I respect the dates and works of those two men and others who are nearly the same. ]

Amos 9:7  Are you not like the sons of the Ethiopians to Me, O sons of Israel ? declares Jehovah. Have I not brought Israel up out of the land of Egypt , and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?

AS you can see here, Philistines seem to come from Caphtor. There could be some doubt for some as Philistine pottery is nearly identical to Mycenaean, more accurately spelled as Mykenaean, slip ware pottery of a certain phase which I do not recall or want to make the effort to look up at the time of writing this. Mycenaean pottery is also found on the coast of Greece long before classical times. It is quite possible that tribes of Caphtorim/Philistines migrated to many places after the eruption and the coast of Greece may have been colonized by them even before the eruption of Mt. Thera near Crete in 1628 BC. They could have settled there in Greece and then moved on. Or it may also be that a later migration of Philistines came with the distinctive slip ware and influenced trends among the axis cities of the Philistines there on the coasts of Canaan. Several possibilities exist but Let God be found true, though every man a liar.

But the few scriptures we have show a migration, when and where, BUT . . . we are not told why. But the archaeological evidence, not to be confused with the conclusions of archaeological scholars, which may or may not agree with the Bible, clearly shows us a pretty good reason why they began their migrations all over the Mediterranean region. God's physical record engraved in the remnants of surviving physical evidence as well as His historical records form a complimentary picture that we can rely on and learn from.

So the early inhabitants of Crete were likely lost in amongst the many different nations and peoples who lived around the Mediterranean Sea. But it is this brief ancient history of the first Cretans of the Middle Bronze Age and their country and civilization which are most interesting. Secular authorities are assuming that Minoan equals Caphtor but I say Minoan preceded Caphtor. Further, Caphtor and Philistines are linked in the Bible and on the coasts. I think they only later settled on Crete, if at all.

Cretan Mercantilism and Engineering
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There were 3 palace cities on Crete. Knossos, the apparent capitol, Kato Sakro, also called Phaestos, and Mallia. Construction of the first palace at Knossos, and I use that word palace loosely, began about 2000 BC and continued to develop over a hundred years or so. It as a large single structure with a courtyard in the middle of it all. Nearly 1100 rooms, 5 Stories high and covering almost 5.5 acres. It was built on a hill with porticoes and airshafts that allowed the venting of the many rooms, catching the winds coming off the waters and updrafting over the island toward the hill. Air ventilation done naturally and effectively. It is clear that this was an intelligent and purposeful people who came and settled here, more advanced than many other settlements around the Mediterranean and Middle East and Mesopotamia.

Groups of rooms around the central courtyard were designed with much more window area to let light reach further inward. Doors often had several sections so that when needed, larger items could be moved through sections, and then when just people were going through, a single section of a door could be used. Corridors were open porticoes wherever possible. Oil lamps were built into walls to allow lighting even at night time. Some lamps had more niches and wicks to provide more lighting power. It is assumed that the place could and was shut up more in winter to help out with heating. No centralized heating and individual room heating is in evidence in the form of open ceramic hearths. Tall drafty rooms were made to quickly move smoke through and out the top. Roofs were non-existent in the ruined remains but were there originally, with openings, no doubt. They might have had quite a system which simply did not survive for us to figure out.

Excavators think it must have been quite smoky. I am not so sure. But given that this place was abandoned by 1450 BC, I am not so sure it was all that cold, anyway. It may have been warmer at that time. But it is difficult to say for sure what might have taken place. This was a very remote time so that much knowledge was lost.

There is much we did not know about Greece and Rome till only the last 10 years or even just the last several years, thanks to the work of Gavin Menzies in his two books on China and her great shipping fleets: "1421" and "1434."

1421 focused on the great shipping fleets and their travels and evidence for them. 1434 deals with the Chinese shipping expedition to Venice, Italy and all the technology that came to Europe almost overnight and changed the world as a result. As much as we think we know, it does not take much to completely rewrite history because the truth is, we don't really know that much and stand to learn much more. But I believe there is no serious historian who should be without reading these two books. So we do not know what we might be missing for knowledge about Crete but it is more likely that we are missing much for evidence and understanding, than we are in many places, times, and circumstances. Given the ingenuity and brilliance of the Minoans, I suspect they had better heating systems than we are aware of at present.

It was commented on Wikipedia that the pictures and frescoes of men and women show them dressed as in summer and that there are no winter depictions. No winter clothes of any sort have ever been found. I still think the climate was also likely warmer. But I want to point out this. We have no evidence of winter dress or climate in picture or material evidence. According to the policy of academics, no evidence means it did not happen. By this measure, we can not assume winter or a climate like now. I don't say that is right, but that has been their previous MO (Method of Operation). But as this problem shows, a lack of evidence does not mean it was not there, but with so little evidence, there is also little we can be certain about.

The columns in the large civic structure were odd in that they were more narrow at the bottom and wider at the top, unlike later Grecian columns. They used local Cypress trees and turned them upside down to keep them from sprouting again, once in place. I hate it when that happens ;- )

Living quarters were created for the King, his advisors, and some craftsmen. Numerous rooms and corridors, often very narrow, a throne room, large baths, a large central courtyard, enormous store rooms, workshops, administrative chambers, likely a lot like departments at city hall in Anytown or Anycity USA. And they had the most elaborate plumbing system with running water, sewage system, the works. Most impressive for the day. The only other place I can recall having that at a remote time like that would be in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in western India in the Indus valley.

The Curetes (living in Crete in remote times, maybe 1900 BC-1450 BC, were said to receive the young Jupiter/Jove, whose father Saturn was out to kill him. The Curetes were a sort of priestly/magician/warrior like group who were trusted and respected in the world of the time among their brethren. You can read more about them in Pezron's book Preface (about page 8) and Chapter 13, right on this site.

Jupiter and Saturn would remain enemies with separate kingdoms till Saturn's death. Jupiter then reigned over all the empire. But for one nation/people to be so successful over the rest of mankind in that general area, no doubt indicates a number of sophistications of which many are evident in the palaces of Crete prior to 1450 BC. As well, those palaces seemed to remain buried and preserved for us so as to bring back to life some of the knowledge of those times.

All the areas of the Mediterranean have peoples who seem to have Celtic words and other traits in their traditions. Little wonder that Europe's languages all seem to have a similar origin of sorts. But to get to Crete and around the Mediterranean, it becomes necessary to build, sail, and navigate, in order to get around and do business and carry on trade.

Trade and Commerce
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The isle of Crete had extensive stream systems used for transportation, as well as an intricate road system, and by far, most importantly, a very impressive navy used both for commerce and defense and maybe even "protection" of their trading territories. What they had for competition is hard to say, but none seemed to be able to threaten them or disturb them, save the climate and volcanoes.

Communications and goods came and went from Crete and Knossos to Turkey , Cyprus , Egypt , Afghanistan , and Scandinavia . Goods traded with Knossos were copper, ivory, amethyst, lapis-lazuli, carnelian, gold, amber, among other important commodities. The type of trading network Minoans had was much like that, that Phoenicians came to have after the Minoans sort of faded away. Trade never dies and always continues, no matter who the ones in power are.

It has been well noted and observed that the biggest city of Knossos had no city walls for protection, when everywhere else, there were walls, often massive extensive walls and had been for at least a thousand years. Yet, there has never been any evidence of military invasion or fighting, though there was lots of fighting on the big continents of Europe, Mid East, and western Asia. Mesopotamia perhaps more than any, was always suffering conflicts. Not a weapon or storehouse of ammunition or any sign of war. Of course, they might have taken all such tings with them when they abandoned the island. So how did the Minoans avoid all this conflict?

Knossos was first destroyed by fire and a wall collapse in about 1700 BC. Then again by the eruption of nearby Mt. Thera. Everyone seemed to get away, but whether they survived the subsequent tsunamis or made it to other places before being over taken by tsunamis is not really known. There is evidence of a subsequent Mykennaean on Crete but this could be Philistines who were actually fellow tribesmen who may have been residing on the Greek coasts and decided to take over, since no one was really there. I am not sure how much academics really take seriously with Bible genealogy. But I take it seriously.

They say that a Minoan King and his nobles who governed all things such as trade, art, religion, the works. The government was said to be Theocratic, ultimately ruled by the gods, who operated through men, of course. Minoan religion was quite matriarchal and centered around the worship of several goddess and high priestesses. Frescoes found in the isle show bull leaping by young men. The women seem to be more white and beautiful, or at least that was considered the ideal of beauty. I do not know for sure. The young men are often very dark red in color, a contrast with the women folk. They appear to be a beautiful race.

It is the opinion of excavators that Minoan society did not have as much stratification of classes as was common elsewhere. They say there were nobles, citizens, and slaves but that there was not a lot of evidence of extreme variance in lifestyles of any of them. You did not have a rich section and slum section as we have so commonly. There are no elaborate burials in this society of Minoans at Knossos. It was a fairly level playing field.

I see the possibility that this was partially due to Minoan civilization not having developed enough, since it was so far back in time when the various families and nations/languages were just starting out and developing. As they grow, classes and stratification develop and get wider and more distant from each other. Look at it this way. When a man goes into business, a small entrepreneurial personal business, it is small, maybe just having a handful of employees who work with the boss everyday on a first name basis and everything if fairly manageable due to the small size and close working proximity of everyone. But as the company grows, and more employees are added, a function done by one man or shared by all, becomes its own department and soon departments function separately from each other. If it becomes really big, soon there are entire levels of management and accounting to keep track of everything and the President and Vice Presidents are a separate function and they are seldom seem by most employees. This is how it is with families becoming tribes, which become towns and cities and maybe even networks of cities or a big city with lots of little satellite villages and farms.

It could also be that Minoan Celts remained strong for as much as 500 years, because of their more egalitarian society, with equality being more emphasized than in other societies. But we can never really say for sure. What we can say for sure was that Crete fall in 1450 BC due to a very powerful volcanic explosion and Crete never fell to other men previous to that event.

Since Crete ceased to really function by 1450 BC, it really died before it ever got going big. It was just 3 small cities and a vast naval shipping network for trade. Or was it? When we consider that Carthage was not a big country. But Carthage had a huge network of allies, nations, and traders. So while she did not possess a lot of land, directly, she did, indirectly, possess many lands and peoples. Her kingdom was more subtle but every bit as effective as an empire has ever been.

In fact, God uses Tyre, representing Phoenicians and Carthaginians, as an example of what would come into development in the last days of the world under the devil, the 21st century. For Babylon the Great would control many nations and peoples and be heavily involved in trade and commerce and be the cause of many wars and blood shed. Historians have been slow to recognize network empires as opposed to land/army based empires.

No doubt that universities, controlled by money, are careful not to give networks acknowledgement or credit so as not to get people looking in that direction and digging deeper.

Minoan Traits Examined
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We know a few things about Minoans. But if we look closely, and think about how societies function, we can discern a few more things that must have been likely, based on traits we have evidence for. We will perform what I will call a psychological post-mortem and create a little profile of the Minoan people.

It seems clear that the Minoans had a plan for their living quarters and settlement, before they even got to Crete. They must have had a lifestyle, a means of living, before having arrived. It would seem logical to me that they were already very skilled naval sailors and navigators and as such, could function quite well in going back and forth between their home base on Crete and their trading partners and networks around the Mediterranean. We will assume that they were somewhat adequately populated when first settling since the "palace" complex seems to have continually grown but shows good development even with the initial stages. But as well, the growth and changes were not monumental so that growth in population may have been controlled or limited.

What is for sure, is that they carefully thought our and planned everything, to quite a level of detail. The rulers exercised good control of all things so that the entire group could live peacefully and somewhat equitably. This is no small accomplishment. But given they were one homogenous group, quite united, yet somewhat small and manageable, and very cooperative, they could accomplish great unity, solidarity, and loyalty to each other. And while there is abundant evidence of everyone having ample necessities, There was not so much wealth that the upper class should become powerful, corrupt and remote. Organization was absolutely certain and they were good at it. What they appear to have accomplished, would stand out in any time period, anywhere.

But its when we note peace and order, and a complete lack of defenses such as city walls, that we really have to give some thought here. They existed for perhaps 500 years without incident or discernable attack from other peoples, when it was much the opposite on the major continents. I am going to go out on a limb here. Given their excellent foresight and planning in all things, I have no doubt at all that they chose Crete, a good centrally located island in the Mediterranean and maybe not quite the biggest isle, either, because they saw a real defensive advantage to locating out in an area quite remote, not so much in distance but remote due to the water barrier inherent around an island.

To get an army to them, you would need a fleet to ferry the army. Apparently, few built boats or sailed so that a fleet was not common, or perhaps they were so bogged down in war with neighbors that they could not set aside enough wealth and resources to build a navy. And the Minoans put everything they had into their navy and trade network so that none could or would ever rival them and threaten them. The Minoans had obviously given this much thought and though they had the perfect strategy and they did . . . except for one thing. Those damn volcanoes and tectonic nuisances that plagued the Mediterranean. The Mediterranean and the Pacific Ring of Fire are the two most tectonically and volcanically active regions on earth, with no rival. And this was the ultimate demise of the Minoans. Other than for the forces of nature, they might have survived and thrived for a very long time.

The Minoans understood the military protection offered by the sea and their navy. With these, they would not ever need city walls, which consume lots of labor and divert attention from other works. They would also make use of their networks and may do some political meddling for all we know. But with a good trade network, wealth and prosperity for all was assured. In addition, their trade activities supplied the money to maintain the naval merchant marine fleet, so that there was no military budget, so to speak.

And if they were Celts among a far larger groups of Celts spread all over the known world, then they had lots of allies, you might say. A network of empires! I might also add that since Celts were very pagan, and quite devoted to sorceries and the like, they may have also had the blessings of the devil. That always helps brute power.

But I think there is evidence that the Minoans were a somewhat unified people and considerate of each other. And the wealth was never overwhelming, either. They knew when enough was enough, it would seem. They might have understood that idea so seldom ever understood, that balance and equilibrium was achieved by not being too poor or too rich. We will never know for sure but it is a possibility.

But we can say that they were loaded with planning and foresight, even wisdom. They had given everything a great deal of fore-thought and effort. That means they did not settle where they did without thought and purpose. In all things, they gave great consideration to the impact of each decision and achieved a remarkable degree of balance, harmony, and equality, maybe even love and devotion to each other. To be honest, we don't have a better example of living and maybe not even one that is close to them. That they got wiped out by a volcano was a tragedy.

But it needs to be understood that all good things come from deliberate and careful planning, giving careful consideration to the impact of each plan or action. Minoans absolutely had to understand this to be able to do what they did. While not as exemplary, Rome would later show themselves to be remarkably adept at planning and development which enabled them to grow and control a vast empire, the greatest to ever have been accomplished in the Western world without modern technology.

The Labyrinth a Fort?
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Now many know of the legend of Labyrinth of King Minos. Keep in mind that the Minoans were very practical, thoughtful, far-sighted, and orderly. Yet we note with the large palace-civic building, that is built in an manner that could be a bit confusing, described as asymmetrical by some, seemingly making it disorderly, inefficient, maybe impractical, though with many functioning parts. Many rooms would have doors to 3 other rooms/directions. Its cumbersome and confusing to travel and navigate or even move in. It seems to almost defy logic and typical Minoan policy. How do we reconcile this, which most take to be the inspiration for the legend of the Labyrinth, which I do, too. But if we "trust" the Minoans and have faith that they had a deliberate reason for building and designing it as they have, then we only need to give it more thought to try to figure out what they were trying to accomplish.

I won't keep you in suspense. The Minoans Labyrinth was an extension of the military defense of their city and of their navy. With no discernable order, although they might have had some principle in which to navigate the maze, this would have been a nightmare to try to invade, rob, or sneak into.  A good military defense often employed in forts is to create narrow passages that an invading army is forced to come through a narrow passage in single file, drastically reducing the value and effectiveness of a large force. Plus, if the army does not know where they are going, or where to go to, to attack or steal, then they become confused, paralyzed and vulnerable. In addition, there may have been escape routes in this maze and even ways to circle around and ambush someone, as I am sure there was. Sometimes, some difficulty and complication is a good thing and ease of access could be very bad. It depends on what is of most concern to you when you design and build.

Left is the Time-Life Book in their TimeFrame Series, "TimeFrame 3000-1500BC, The Age of the God Kings" copyright 1987, Inside a review of the major cultures of that time, with a section on Crete.
These books are very cheap now on Amazon used books. A Fairly good number of illustrations and photos are in this. Below is a map of the 1st floor of the palace of Minos, the so-called Labyrinth. Just below is a reconstruction of the whole palace complex by an artist. These were taken from websites and likely have copyrights. I claim fair usage since I make no profit and use these to help others understand what I speak of.

If you look carefully at these many hallways, corridors, and rooms, you'll notice how confusing it all is. It is a maze, no doubt.

Aerial photo below of the real site's ruins, principally of the 1st floor.

In addition, there may have been some similarity between the myth of the Minotaur hunting down victims in the Labyrinth and maybe using the Maze almost like the Roman Coliseum, where captured prisoners were turned loose into a building, a maze, that the prisoners were hopelessly lost in, but which the hunters were well acquainted with, slaughtering the captives or even criminals, almost in a ritual sort of way. But we can also imagine that with only key people knowing their way around the maze or parts of the maze, that it would be difficult or impossible for those not allowed the navigation knowledge to come in and steal or catch anyone by surprise.

Assassination would be much more difficult and require an inside contact. And in fact, there may have even been secret religious rituals or other things some would like to keep secret. Such a "Lab" would be a good way to keep all things concealed from common public knowledge. And if there was a desire to maintain some secrecy of meeting or discussing things in private, how easy it would be to gather without notice. And with the right approved people living within this complex, it had full time surveillance and security.

So while it might seem odd on the surface why the "Lab" is so confusing, with further thought, we can see many practical advantages to such a design. It is an excellent means of security and protection, and maybe even secrecy for all we know. And listen, this is not the only place and time where such things have been created. In Paris, France, there are buildings where a vast number of rooms are all connected for quite some length, so that no one publicly knows where the rooms can or do lead to. I am sure someone somewhere knows, but no one knows who that would be. These rooms allow travel in secrecy, moving goods in secret, or escaping to who knows where. Secret activities could be carried out if one wanted to. 

In addition, there are many underground passages where many bones of the dead from the black death and bubonic plague caused incredible numbers to die in a short time. Bones are arranged in certain patterns, with all the long bones stacked, and then maybe skulls on top or some sort of arrangement. So many and so long are these tunnels, that one could easily get lost and end up dying down in these passage ways. Whether secret things took place down there, who knows but it is certainly possible and I think, likely. At least in the case of the connecting rooms, someone made that network of rooms for a reason. It was not an accident. So much for Paris.

Israelites/Judeans hid in caves in the wilderness and hid things in those caves. Another example would be the many underground tunnels and other such structures that exist in England and Scotland, such as Edinburgh. Masons are well known, not only in Britain, but in the USA, for creating secret underground structures and secret passages and rooms, as well as secret communication signals and symbols. One city in NW USA, Oregon or Washington State, maybe, has underground passages so that criminal and vice activity could be carried on out of public sight. Smuggling during the 1920s during prohibition had many such elements. These have all been featured on TV programs.

So really, what the Minoans created with the Labyrinth is not unusual or rare at all. It has been done many times since. In fact, it is a rather common routine sort of technique for various types of secrecy and security.

Minoans influenced many around them. After them, came Phoenicians as sailors and tradesmen. Israelites would come to know sailing and trading through their close relationship with Phoenicia, better known in the Bible as Tyre and Sidon. Solomon would go on to create a fleet of his own with Hiram and the Phoenicians showing him how and helping him. Rome no doubt learned things from this. Possibly Greece got many of their ideas from these Hammitic sea peoples, though there is some possibility that both were of influence to each other, some Greeks being descendants of Javan, whose descendants were absolutely oriented toward the sea. I suspect "Sea Peoples," as they were referred to, were a somewhat mixed cosmopolitan bunch, as sailors often tend to be.

But Minoans were among the first to recognize the serious advantage and power that came with living on a sizable island, supported by a big navy, which not only served a protective purpose, but allowed great trade and commerce, which also enable wealth and security, and even, if a nation chose, obscene unbridled wealth, which could ultimately be a double-edged sword. Navies would be the predominant way to accomplish trade and power. Even to this day, most trade is accomplished by big cargo ships, since ships are still the most economical way to ship a great volume of goods. And trade and commerce are really the best way to accomplish and accumulate wealth and power.

In addition, they did sort of build a city wall, sort of. But that wall was the walls of the Labyrinth, where all the wealth and commerce, among other things, was stored. They understood the value of selective knowledge, whereby the approved ones of their people would know how to move about in the maze, while others might be refused such knowledge. And it might not be that some were refused because they were not trusted but because limiting how many know, limits how easily the knowledge might be found out or obtained.

Air power is important today for military power, but trade still largely depends on ships to get to certain points, whereby trains, planes, and trucks take over. But peoples and nations learned valuable lessons over the centuries. And they did not forget the valuable lessons that were taught to them by the Minoan Cretans. We do not want to confuse the latter day Cretans of say, the 1st century AD. These might not be closely related to the ancient Minoan Cretans.

Modern Day Lessons
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Crete really stands out in history. Trading fleets of ships would forever after be the way to real power and wealth. And wealth is a way to support a military, which enables power and control. I mentioned the Phoenicians. From them came a Colony which also became very prosperous and successful. They were known as the Carthaginians. And while Greeks did establish some colonies around the Mediterranean, the Carthaginians did more so. And then Rome came along. Rome started out as a land army and force.

But they soon began to realize that if they were to grow and become supreme, they were going to have to take on the Carthaginians and overcome them and defeat them, so that Rome could become a monopoly of trade and commerce, using the sea and fleets to serve the Mediterranean and rule it and administrate it as well. So Rome deliberately began a slow deliberate growth toward creating their own navy and trade network to compete with the Carthaginians and eventually overcome the Carthaginians and take their markets and wealth from them. And Rome did. Rome became the Mistress of the Seas, at least the Mediterranean Seas.

From Rome, the torch would pass on to Byzantium. As well, the Vikings were a substantial group of sailors and ships who are very much in evidence by 300 AD if not even sooner. Though many Germanic armies would invade Rome and surrounding countries, They also accomplished great military conquests by use of boats as well. They carried on raids but they also carried on lots of trade and commerce and often became rulers of other people, adopting the language of the conquered to better administer and become as one with the ruled. And unknown to the western world, the Chinese dominated the Indian Ocean and Pacific, most notably the SE Pacific with its thousands of islands.

If you were going to be somebody, you had to have a good navy. And if you were going to be wealthy, you had to have a fleet of ships. There was no other way around it. It also might help if your home base was also surrounded by water so as only being approachable by sea and navy.

Tracing History
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When one is trying to trace history and its development and causes, one would like to be able to trace back each step, starting from the present. But history being something that does not always leave a record or physical evidence for historians and archaeologists to find, one sometimes needs to jump back a few hundred years and then try to move forward back to the last point you leaped backward from. That is, when the middle of the path is obscure, you might have the first part or the last part you can start from and then build from there. So you will often have to jump back and forth to form the complete and continuous picture that gives illumination to the present circumstances. Trails are not always continuous and easy as we would like them to be. Sometimes we are left to fill in a few blanks.

The Bible presents a development of history, the history of mankind, that is. This history was to grow and develop and progress from bad to worse. But the Bible indicates that there would be a thread of continuity through it all, if we looked long enough, hard enough, careful enough, to put the pieces of the puzzle together to form that complete picture that we want to see so clearly. Crete gives us a beginning and a clue, but we need to jump far ahead to see how it progressed from then to now.

The Bible gave us a list of empires that would follow each other in succession. This was given as a framework to help us solve some puzzles. We were also given a number of prophecies to help solve certain puzzles, mysteries, and blank spots.

Who had been the greatest power of our days and who and why was it powerful? If Crete were to say anything about it, it would be a homeland nearly unassailable by an army or another navy, and it would need lots of trade and commerce to be wealthy, for wealth leads to power. So a navy, a very impressive navy, would be important as well. It is not hard to identify the base of power today. It mirrors Crete far more than we might imagine and it was thought out well before hand, but a very intelligent group of people, whether well intentioned or not, who went about establishing their base of power deliberately, with perseverance, and determination. It would not have been able to progress, otherwise.

Really, the answer it obvious. China could have been it, but the Chinese Mandarins decided it would not be China's fate to be the great world power, though she, at one time, had, by far, the most formidable fleet in the world. But China did not have blind unbridled ambition and withdrew from world conquest. Rome became the beast in the West. And after Rome, only Great Britain and the USA could truly lay claim to an amazing empire, once claiming a third of the world and now maybe even more, due to subtle but strong connections in a network of nations and business, commerce, as well as army, naval and airforce bases, all around the world. It was unique and different in that the territory was not always continuous but more in a network of locations connected by the greatest fleet of merchant ships and military vessels seen since China and Rome.

Consider that D-day in June of 1942 amassed 6,500 ships of the coast of France to invade. True, they did not all belong to one nation, but they were a whole united network, the so-called "Allies." The Mongols once had a fleet of 5,000 ships headed for Japan but a storm wiped out a good portion of the fleet and they retreated. Big fleets tend to stand out in history.

The odd thing is that in the latter days, those in power and control are not so much a nation as a corporation. The power elite, the controllers, are now a network of merchants and bankers who rule all nations by their wealth and vast fleets of cargo ships and formidable navies of the nations. But Britain was the means to how we got to this point. And then the USA empire comes along, to dominate the world with their supposed Democracy, Human Rights, Justice, and all that jazz. But The UK and USA are pretty much inseparable. They act as one, because they both only have one owner/master.

Secrecy Vital Always
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Secrecy and secret knowledge were always used for advantage and power. You were hard to attack if no one knew anything about you or your nation or what you were up to. Keeping your activities out of sight was important. An example would be Nazi Germany in WWII. The outside world lost much of its contact inside Germany and German had built vast networks of tunnels and other underground structures for developing very sophisticated and advanced technology that was propelling them far ahead of the allies. When the allies got some word of what was being developed in secret, they launched an all out offensive to quickly invade and conquer Germany and stop the the development before it became unstoppable. The USA captured trainloads of technological and science papers as well as lots of equipment and even the secret weapons. Technological developments of the USA under Project PaperClip leaped forward and some of it filtered down to the public and public manufacturing of industry.

It has been alleged for many years that secret societies have used large amounts of secrecy to hide their activities and intentions. They clearly had the means, in networks of people with important connections and various secret underground structures and other such buildings. They do something and what it is, we do not know. They have no accountability to any public group or source in a public way. Given the vast amount of info that has appeared on TV, and available on the internet, using search engines, I do believe there are very good grounds for concern and a certain secret shadow government among these societies. It is secret cover and camouflage, so to speak, that enable such things. They know and you don't. It has always been a great advantage, as it was with the Labyrinth, right?

But we can perhaps best see the advantage today in what we might call classified technology, which we know for sure, is at least 30 years ahead of public technology, but it may be and likely is, far more ahead of public knowledge than just 30 years. It could be 50 or 100 for all we know. Classified networks of agents, whose job it is to gather as much knowledge of the "other" guys as possible, often pretend to be what they are not. An agent in another country may pretend to be a restaurant owner/operator, or by a tailor for a clothing store, run a store or work in it, or even be an insider in a research or technology sector as a worker, to keep an eye on things and maybe even feed secrets back to someone. They may pretend to be of the majority political party of the nation they are in, and pretend to belong to the majority religion of the nation, and who knows what else. As such, no one ever knows what they are really doing or for who. They seem to be one of the gang, just another citizen.

They have networks of others like them with safe houses and often even services available to them in emergencies to get away or carry out things. They might have some access, even to some secret places generally unknown. Again, all this goes on without anyone being the wiser. It is moving and acting, on the surface as a legitimate loyal action of a citizen and neighbor, but actually caring on something perhaps clandestine, subversive and harmful to the nation they live in.

In addition, the conduct of many nations is to keep their important activities hidden, even from their own citizens and from plain observation so that such activities might even remain hidden from spies as well. The ones who keep their secrecy the best, are often the ones to prevail. And we see the dual and hidden purpose of a labyrinth or a merchant fleet, or a headquarters and living base on an island nation, such as Crete.

So it takes a very sharp and alert mind, an educated mind, to first realize there is much going on that is not even apparent to an ordinary person. Then he can go one further and try to see what the things are, that are hiding other purposes and activities. Only a few ever catch on to that sort of stuff. Crete is perhaps, if not the earliest, then one of the earliest examples of such a principle. But while there was some secrecy, Crete is handy because most of it is fairly discernible.

Networks Are Strength
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Whether public or secret, there is strength in numbers. No man is an island. One needs lots of friends, if he can find any. An army needs lots of soldiers, all well trained and equipped. A nation is strong that has lots of people, labor, and resources. But one is most effective if no one really knows how many friends you have or how big your network is or worse, who it is. You can't attack an enemy you don't really know or know who or how much. But just as there are political networks, there are business networks, and lots of various networks. There are even networks of networks all woven together. You have no power without a network. There are crime networks. It is well know that if you pick on a member of Hell's Angels, and he can not overcome or defend, he will go get some of his fellow members and come back with the odds more in his favor.

When you attack a network, knowing or unknowingly, you do not just attack the individual, but the whole network. There is protection in a network and networks are a means of organizing and controlling. Networks allow a stratified hierarchy of levels of control and management. We see this most obviously in military organizations, such as the branches of the USA military, such as the army, navy, air force, and marines. Hierarchies are maintained to keep order and obedience, so that a very few may control great numbers of people, and direct them precisely. This is very important for any military, for if one is to be successful, one needs to be able to concentrate their forces in certain places or directions for overcoming the enemy. Obedience upon order is important, because those leading can not afford to let all know what they are trying to accomplish. But it does require faith on your leaders to be blindly obedient. But likewise, all networks need and require absolute unquestioning obedience in order to be effective and precise. It can not be avoided. So all networks know whose boss and that one must act when commanded. This becomes a network's ultimate power.

Cretans had a trading network and it no doubt involved trade deals, territories, exclusive trading relationships and agreements, loyalties, even power plays. This absolutely had to be part of their power, their "forward" defense, the first line of defense, even before the water and the Labyrinth. We could also call this organization. Man naturally tends toward organization, for it does have many benefits and protections. Organization is networking and no one accomplishes any sort of power and control without others to help in that endeavor. No control or power can be had without networking on a big scale and the more power in evidence, the bigger that network must be. While not readily evident, we know from analyzing, that Crete had more in networking than might be apparent. She was too smart not to know it and use it. No power can exist without.

A Contrast

Now contrast that with someone without a network. Even if they are good employees or useful, they may be passed by because hierarchies and networks consider unhesitating obedience to be vital, for secrecy will be required as well, and morals are not allowed when a network is up to no good. A man without a network will always be near the bottom, will be unpopular, and somewhat isolated because most will shun him so that they do not offend their network and make some suspicious. This is why most want to be in a network, so they can survive.

But the price of acceptance in a network is that you give up any personal will of your own and just do whatever others above want you to do. A righteous man who holds to some sort of code or morality or integrity will be out in the cold. But he will also be able to like himself and respect himself. An independent man will follow his own inner voices and act according to what is right and beneficial. These are the types that God looks for and wants. They have to be able to stand up to evil.

It should also be understood that God does have a network and power as well. But His are invisible and come from Him. He is far more powerful that the devil's network. But God requires faith if one is to benefit from His network. And serving God means that you'll have to suffer a certain amount of alienation and persecution in the present on earth. But good rewards await in time, after the big issues are settled in what many now call Armageddon, also known as Judgment Day, which is very close now.

Moral and Ethical Lessons
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Crete seemed to be at peace and wealth spread out far more equitably and balanced than we typically see today or even in ancient times. Crete stands out in this respect. I suggest that Crete being "relatively" small and very close and united to each other is key to this. It was hard for the upper class to see the lower class as just something to use and not care about. There was some fellow feeling. Further, no Cretan was all that stupid as one can see from their degree of engineering, planning, and construction. They knew that if someone was treated indifferently or callously, there would be friction, resentment, hurt and even anger, which would overtime, lead to violence, division, chaos. Cretans could not afford division from within. They needed loyalty, secrecy, and common purpose, unity, solidarity. It was essential to their survival as various individual merchant fleets went off in their various directions. They had to rely on and depend on each other to carry out a common goal in their merchant activities. If there was an attempt by any particular merchant group to selfishly become bigger and stronger than the other groups and become the big leader, it could have been devastating and result in an internal war which would have made them weak and vulnerable to outside attack. Cretans seem to be at all times loyal.

Is our society only mildly stratified, with the difference/gap between the rich and poor being narrow, or is there a huge gap and lots of ill will of one towards the other? Its pretty obvious, isn't it? Clearly, we are not a balanced society in equity and decency with unity and care for all. We are selfish, divided, even cruel. A small group of elite chose to use the rest to their exclusive enjoyment, creating hate and resentment from the lower classes, which foments lots of chaos. Are we smart? I would say not! Are we at peace. I haven't seen any! Are we united and intensely loyal to each other? Not at all! We have much to learn from the Cretan Minoans. Ethics, values, and morals make for a much better society than what we have now. That would be my verdict.

I would say that Crete must have known or had some sort of weapons or defense, at least out on the seas. But nothing is left behind because they took it all with them, as they were going to need it. But Crete did not seem to make primary use of war and conquering. Trade seemed to keep them going pretty well. But we should not miss that they likely had colonies on the shores of other places, who you can be assured were armed. They certainly had "family" who also were princes and rulers in various place and likely stuck together so there was that sort of protection that would keep others from attacking for fear of the "allies" joining together to repel and punish attackers of their network.

But given the remote distant past of this time, we can not be completely sure of what the situation was around the Mediterranean was. Were the Cretans involved in war? If they were, it never seemed to show up on their doorstep or island. I think they tried to keep to themselves for they, no doubt, understood that war would deplete their resources and create need for lots of resources and labor, which could have caused more harsh measures for those doing the work. I would say that Crete did what they could to stay out of as many entanglements as possible. Could we learn anything from that?

Neutrality is good whenever possible. Staying out of other people's wars is also a good idea. For if one involves themselves in the affairs of others, one soon becomes subordinate to someone or subordinates someone else. Crete seems to have stayed away from most of this in its 500 years. Could we learn anything about minding our own business? It depends on if we are ambitious and looking for power or if we are content to live and let live. Early Crete is impressive for their apparent restraint on ambition, being content with enough and not seeking too much. I think there is a valuable lesson there in restraining our unbridled ambitions and learning contentment but that's just me.

On the other hand, if one seeks power, one must find ways to pressure allies to join in their wars for control and power. One must have great ambition to overcome a sense of fairness and decency, and completely disregard their fellow human beings. By their fruits you will know them.

I would say that there is much to commend to Crete.

Patterns in Strategy and Planning
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It is quite clear that there had to be some plan from the beginning when Minoans chose to settle on Crete and build their highly evolved settlements there without intermediate steps. They chose what they did for good reason and purpose. It was not an accident. The planning was too obvious and the result too sound and effective. Nothing grows or evolves without planning and purpose. Accidents do not turn out productive as a whole. There is a distinct pattern to growth and success. There is organization, planning, execution, strategy, thoughtfulness, self-examination, continual re-evaluation, order, and the like. Chaos, randomness, division, selfishness, these all lead to nothing. But one can have 2 forces acting against each other, where a struggle will be apparent. You can have great ambition and plans, coupled with division and disorder, and you will constantly struggle with both. But ambition and plans will absolutely be required for any and all empires. Its guaranteed and essential.

Wars and battles are like this. Lots of planning and organization and preparation are required to get an army ready for war. Men must have their wills bent and coerced to fight. They must be supplied and trained. There must be coordination and obedience learned/taught/forced. Suppliers will be needed for weapons and devices, food and a means to ship and supply it. Lots of things take place that can not happen overnight or fast. War and armies take time and strategy to develop and someone had to have an ambition that required an army in the first place. There are no accidents in history, really. Sometimes a battle might go one way rather than another, due to unseen circumstances, but the battle itself was possibly years in the making. It was deliberate and intentional. Most people do not fully appreciate how much society is controlled and guided at all times. They are unaware that someone somewhere always has their hands on the wheel. The Bible tries to warn us that someone has their hands on the wheel.

But my main point here is that when we see a power come into being, or a plan come to fruition, we should not think that can happen by mere chance or accident. But we can also be assured that some or even a lot of that political and military machinery will be invisible, secret, camouflaged, or disguised as something else, at least as it is rising to power. One can be most effective, when no one knows about you or who you are. The most effective enemy is one that you do not know exists. He pretends to be your friend and says he likes you.

I see this same mistake made in science, so called, and in the theory of evolution. Randomness, chaos, chance; these all have the same bell curve pattern. You'll get the same distribution result every time. Roll a 1000 dice and you can be assured of having nearly the same amount of every number come up. Its the same pattern every time. But if  you want all the dice to come up as just one number, or a precise careful sequence of some sort, then you will need to deliberately arrange it the way you want. You will not get it by just rolling the dice and letting the chips fall where they may.

So it is that life has patterns. Precise, ordered, arranged, specific patterns; not random chaotic things. In general, human minds do not function with randomness. They have some sort of plan and purpose. It is our nature. So there are predictable patterns of order and purpose. The world of long ago came about by purpose. The world we have today is by purpose. I just wanted to make this clear. There are human forces at work, guiding the results. There are also spirit forces at work, but many find this too hard to believe. But there are patterns that are starting to manifest themselves quite prominently now in 2014. Soon, no one will doubt there are spirits. It will just be a matter of not falling for the wrong spirits.

Many people think that what we get, because it seems to contrary to logic and purpose, is a result of stupidity and ignorance. But it is not. It is due to us not understanding the REAL purpose, goal, strategy. We might say, why would you do that if you wanted what was best for your country. But what if those doing it, did not want the best for your country? Then you might have a result that seems confused or contradictory. But it is not really. You just don't know the real intention for you could never believe that the intention was a bad one to begin with, a subversive one. But that is why our world is in such a chaotic mess. It is chaotic and brutal for the masses, but wonderfully enjoyable for a small few super rich. Its a deliberate pattern. Lets call this lesson "Patterns 101."

You Have a Very Dan-gerous Enemy
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Are you a Christian? I only bring this up because the Bible warns us by means of symbolic prophecy, that Christians have a very dangerous enemy, who most of the world will be completely unaware of, despite the fact that this enemy is very powerful and effective. In fact, "he" will claim to be wonderful, benevolent, noble, idealistic, altruistic, seeking peace and prosperity and the best for all. He will present himself almost as if an angel of light and understanding, science, learning, and progress. Truth, justice, democracy, choice, freedom, human rights and dignity. He'll fill you with all sorts of crap, not a word of which he really means.

While speaking of such lofty idealism, he will be the biggest of crooks and liars, thieves, cheats, swindlers, bullies, mean-spirited, greedy, vicious, underhanded, lawless, devious, treacherous, base, debauched, vile, despicable, war-mongering, starting fights, a criminal in every respect. He will be the exact opposite of what he claims to be. A total lying hypocrite. He will say one thing and have someone else do another. But much of his crime will be done in secret. His hate will be in secret. He'll tell you he thinks you're the greatest while behind you back he is plotting your death.

God lets us know through prophetic symbols that there is an enemy gunning for us. They mean true Christians great harm. They are called Babylon the Great. Leading them is the antichrist, who it is claimed and seems to be supported by the scriptures, as due to come from the tribe of DAN; for which reason Dan is not named among the 12 tribes of Israel in Revelation 7 & 14. And he lies like the devil, quite literally.

You know about the proverbial guy who will tell a girl anything she wants to hear, or is willing to believe or willing to accept, to get her to lose her clothes and jump into bed, right? He will say what ever it takes to accomplish what he wants - SEX! Of course, he will be long gone in the morning, never to be seen again or if he lives near you, suddenly he does not really care about you or seem to know you any more. He got what he wanted and it was not what he said he wanted. Oh, that love and marriage thing? That was all just talk. This is the way it is with many politicians, businessmen, and clergymen. They will tell you what you want to hear and tickle you ears and maybe a few other things, too. But it means nothing to them. They are liars and their "father" is the father of the lie, himself; the devil, which means liar in Hebrew.

So God, the Father, Jehovah of the Old Testament, wanted us to know that such an enemy does exist and is up to absolutely no good and hates us and will attack us eventually, with the same malice with which they attacked Jesus and killed him, without justification. And you need to know how an enemy could hide right under your eyes and not been seen or detected. Well, I have shown you some of the basic tactics that enable him to do this. The Minoans have helped us do that.

By disguises, secrecy, networks, alliances, trade and commerce, money, resources, and everything mentioned in this article, the enemy will be operating among us, even as a spy does, openly pretending to be one of us and believing as we do, but secretly doing the opposite. One will have to be awake, alert, and carefully looking at the world around him to se if he can detect this hidden outworking of a great evil, the likes of which will bring upon the earth and humanity, the worst destruction of life the world has ever seen in history or will ever see again. The Bible paints a horrific picture but one you can be certain about. It is not like we are not seeing a lot of terrible things to day, even as I write this. The Bible says it should be obvious but not many want to see it, which is what Jesus pointed out, that not many would observe it and it would take them by surprise, like a thief in the night, who you are not expecting.

But this is not because it is hard to see but because no one is paying any attention to what is going on around them and the enemy has tried to be as discreet and secret about it all as he can. But despite all that, the enemy's plan has evolved enough that his true intentions can no longer be effectively hidden and concealed. What he is doing is now becoming very obvious to anyone paying any attention. But what I say is that if you look carefully, you can find networks, and secrecy, and conniving, dirty dealing, treachery, deceit, corruption of justice and law, lies, greed, cheating, fraud, and nothing good. it will all have a common origin. There will be that ugly enemy, made up of several big players, but one in particular, Babylon the Great, the mother of the harlots and disgusting things of the earth. A mystery if ever there was one. But God tells no mystery that is not meant to be solved by His people at the proper time. That time is now, my people.

Jesus said, Seek and you shall find, ask and it will be answered, knock and will be opened to you. If you want to know and are brave and courageous enough to dare to know, you will. It will come to you by the grace of God. You just have to start looking and trying.  And it is important to do this for no one will do well who insists on ignoring that there is an enemy looking for him to harm him. We need to know it is coming and to brace ourselves for it. Further, we have one final job to do in the 1st 3.5 years of the appearance of the Anti-christ. Then we will be relived of our duties and can wait for God in safe keeping in prisons and concentration camps. It may not seem good or right, but it is God's chosen way to protect us while much of the rest of the world dies in great agony and misery.

So if you do not know who this secret but very hateful force is, then you need to find out so that you are not ensnared as many/most will be. I offer a little bit of a helping hand, thanks to lessons from Crete as follows in the next section.

Britain Resembles Crete
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The Bible tells us that Rome was the 4th beast in a vision of Daniel. We are basically told that there will only be one more great power and empire before the end comes. Indeed, there is a world power in place now, and that power seems to emanate from the USA and The United Kingdom, at one time known as Great Britain. It seemed like the two were at war briefly in the latter 1700s but that was a deceptive war, for it was forces in Britain, not being from the king, that wanted that war so that they might obtain the USA, largely undeveloped and unexploited by the native peoples, speaking in an industrial and mercantile sense, for themselves and not the king of England. Once they had the USA, then they wanted to develop and exploit it and bring it under their control, even as England and Britain truly were under control, though they had a king, in theory.

To make it more plain, I would suggest that Masonic forces had long wanted the Colonies for themselves, believing these to be their just right, anyway, since their charter with King James was supposed to be a lasting one, or at least so they thought. When he revoked it in favor of the crown, they no doubt felt robbed. So they sought to secure the colonies for their control and benefit, above and beyond those of Britain. But after securing the colonies, the Masons were to reunite the 2 formidable powers in to one securely under their control rather than that of the crown.

But was it by accident that England and the British Isles became the base of power from which to launch the next great empire? I would say no. Consider that Britain is basically a big island, surrounded on all sides by water and with a big river creating excellent harborage on the eastern side, facing the great Viking conquerors of Scandinavia. Why, is that not the very same set-up that Crete had? Consider that France was the great super power of Europe for many centuries, but always under attack and its borders in dispute and contest. It bordered the Mediterranean and the English Channel leading to the north sea, Scandinavia and the Atlantic. It was well placed and had many advantages but . . . it could easily be approached and attacked from either Spain or the German nations to the east. In fact, France had been the territory of the Gauls (Celts) and then Romans and Gauls. But eventually, Germanic Franks/Francs invaded and conquered. So while France had much to offer, it had certain vulnerabilities that made it less than the optimal choice for creating a nearly impregnable power base and headquarters.

Indeed, wise men, seeking the perfect capital for a new empire, would likely see that Britain offered the best choice. It was surrounded by water all around so that a navy, a very large navy, would be needed to launch an invasion of Britain. IT could be done, but not very easy. And if you had your own large navy defending Britain, then it would be all but impossible. And Britain was no small island at all. It was quite big and capable of supporting a large population and industry, too. From it could come a great population and a great army and navy. And when resources got low, more could be brought in with a big merchant fleet, that a big navy fleet could protect. Which now brings us to William the Conqueror.

William, was a duke of France, who had the biggest kingdom in France to rule over. But oddly, he seems not to have been content or pleased with this accomplishment. Or maybe it was some who had influence with him that were not fully happy with the empire at hand in France. William saw England as more desirable. Or maybe he had friends who saw England as far more desirable and useful. Kings and dukes depend upon supporting networks. Remember that word? Elements within this network may have suggested to him that England would make a far better place for him to set up a kingdom and empire than hotly contested France would. They might have pledged lots of support and promised him a great and enduring kingdom, which he would not likely have last in France for very long. But whatever the circumstance, William roused or some helped him rouse a substantial military force and navy to cross the English Channel and attack the basically Viking Angle/Anglo-Saxon/Sachsen kingdom.

This is odd because William was a Norman/Northman/Norseman/Viking himself. So replacing one Viking regime with another seemed silly except that if you did want a kingdom that would last and endure, for sure, England was the place to be and so off William went. But here is another odd thing. William was at a disadvantage from the beginning . . . or was he? You see, the Anglo-Saxons were all defending from the top of a ridge and as long as they stayed put on that ridge, there would have been no hope of success for William. But for reasons that defy all logic, a flank off to one side decided to head down hill to put a run to the invaders and they broke rank, against orders, with the rest of the army on the hill. This was a critical and very important event and I can't help but wonder if someone had not been convinced, far ahead of time, to gather particular forces to come down off that hill at the right time and allow a counter maneuver.

Or it just as easily could have been a poorly planned expedition that just got lucky or received some "spiritual" help from so called "divine" (demonic) providence, more like Satanic providence, as after all, the devil does have complete rule of the world given to him for a time to do as he pleases. He once offered it all to Jesus, for it was his to offer, but Jesus refused. But whatever the case, William's forces prevailed and Britain changed hands. William's empire remains to this day in succession.

I was doing legal research in Nova Scotia due to a land dispute my father had, as governmental bullies wanted to deprive him of his land, now having become quite desirable since the railroad was abandoned in the area across from a pier and beach. Much of Canadian law is really English law. And at one time, if you wanted to prove you were owner of a piece of land, you had to be able to prove it all the way back to William the Conqueror. OF course, that was nearly impossible so law eventually was changed and you only had to prove 20 to 40 years to verify a claim of ownership. But they recognized the authority of William as being the start of the present power. William's kingdom has indeed, endured. William made a good decision and maybe he had some help in the matter, too. But on his death bed, William denounced and regretted much of what he did, repenting on his death bed. It leaves one to wonder if the decision to take Britain or to ruthlessly wipe out the previous regime led to some things he did not like.

I wonder because in my legal research, the land that came into our possession had once belonged to a very prominent member of the community, whose whole family was very prominent, the Cox family, started in that area by a Capt. John Cox III, due to a land grant from the king of England. Oddly, John had originally been a citizen of Portland Maine where we live. But he had been a loyalist at the time of the Revolution in the USA, and went to Nova Scotia, the land of my father's birth. If one looks at the Coxes, one will see their family had always been prominent and on good terms with the throne of England. This was not an accident. I bet your surprised, right? ;-)

The Coxes had come over with William the Conqueror. Imagine that! They were his good buddies and allies and helped take England and were rewarded, no doubt, throughout the history of England, since William. You see, there are classes, clicks, and castes in society. Always have been! And they do not change much, either. Those in power tend to stay in power. William came in 1066 and his kingdom is in tact to this day and his buddies continue to do well to this very day. Imagine that! We have no gripes with the conduct of the Coxes of Nova Scotia. We do not begrudge their advantages earned a thousand years ago. They did not use or abuse us. But other forces in Nova Scotia sure have and continue to do so.

Control Is Designed
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But I did notice yet another thing. There was a church right beside our property, which had been granted some land from Ebenezer Cox, who owned our land at one time as well. He gave over this land to the Congregational Church, provided that the trustees of that church remain loyal to the doctrine of the Congregational church. This has interesting implications for many things. First, it is apparent that a church does not have the right, as a local body of believers, to contemplate or reconsider their beliefs in view of the Bible, and the changing world, and the understanding of those in the church. The church is not allowed to think independently or grow and evolve and change or revert to something earlier, either. It must remain forever as it is, unless the entire body of Congregational Churches changes. Actually they did. It became the United Church and the members went along with that.

The real clue is that Ebenezer's family, the Coxes, were married into other prominent families of the area, most notable Bigelows, largely ship builders running a profitable enterprise for the King, of course. Ebenezer became a shipwright, the head of the company, so to speak, in the town/hamlet that our land was in. He was a prominent member of the community and the class/caste in power there. He would not break ranks and certainly not offend the king and crown. And he made sure that the church remained under the influence and control of the "network." They could not stray or vary from what they were allowed to operate under, and by which they obtained land from Ebenezer.

But it is important to understand how powers that be get in place and keep in place and how they keep everyone else in place. Everything is organized, networked and controlled. When the railroad was formed to service the area and the pier and shipping, it was formed by the local prominent business men of the neighboring larger (just barely) town of Canning. Everyone went to church and no one rocked the boat or tried to stir things up. If they did, they might find it hard to get work or be received at any social gathering with friendliness. Small towns could be tough. Everything was designed to keep and maintain the status quo. We are all quietly, subtly controlled; at home, at work, at school, and everywhere we go, and in everything we do, and its been that way since nearly the beginning of time. Its a pattern, folks. And what they hate and fear is independent thinking and acting. Were the members of the church to come to a difference of opinion in a matter of doctrine, it would become of great concern because once you begin a pattern of independence, where is it going to end? It is best to stop it right at the beginning, which for a long time is what the Roman Catholic Church did in persecuting and executing those who dared to say the "Church" was wrong or in error. Naughty, naughty!

Freedom of thought and independence of thought are terrifying to those who have power and control because those can easily be lost if one allows minds to go wherever they want. So understand that it is ultimately, your head, your thoughts, that they want to control, more like restrain and made to conform to the power in place. Get out of line and its not going to be fun. We now live in a world where thoughts and expression of thoughts are considered as a threat and violation of law. Soon we will be severely punished for thinking and talking the wrong way. It is already difficult as I have found out. Many have found the same thing as I have.

Continuity From Crete to the UK
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I would also propose that whoever is in power today was around to learn from Babel, Crete, Egypt, Phoenicia/Canaan, Assyria, Media/Persia, Babylon, Greece, and Rome. From out of Rome would come the monster of all monsters. A 7-headed 10-horned monstrosity that would be the ultimate plague of mankind. Nimrod might have started the old empire building scheme but the 7 headed monster will be the last. Whether this trail is completely traceable or not, there is a path from the beginning to the end.

Babel started us off with the first great extensive empire, network, and control. From it also came many pagan practices which continued through other nations, including the latter Babylon, in the very same valley from which it all started.

Egypt gave us a famine and Joseph saved Egypt and the surrounding region from starvation with the 20% tax of grains. In doing so, Joseph obtained total control and ownership of all things and people, almost as a sort of prophetic warning of what could be again. Only this time it will not be with the benevolence of Joseph. Could we end up giving up everything we have to survive? Could such a famine be engineered rather than that happen by nature exclusively? Do we have such power now? I say we do or will. Egypt also gave wisdom and knowledge to the world.

Phoenicia taught the surrounding nations how to be a trade network and shipping nation as well, picking up where Crete had to leave off. Babylon was also a great cross-roads center for trade, commerce, and even banking as well as math and science. Greece came and went quickly but not before giving much of the world the common language of Greek, along with some philosophy, and a great library collection at Alexandria. Rome would make full use of the common Greek language in use in so much of the empire, and so would Christianity.

Rome would teach many lessons and inspire many kingdoms and kings to recreate the glory that was Rome, but it would have to wait till China bestowed some more gifts to the West in 1434. The Middle Ages were a time of mass organizing in preparation for the arrival of China. China would give us great navigation and exploring skills with much of the world already mapped and much technology developed, far beyond what the west had and certain powers were there waiting to quickly put this new found knowledge to work. So by 1500, we were well on our way to a path leading to the last great empire of the world. Now we are nearly there.

England Since 1066
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So now we live in a world carefully crafted to someone's liking. We just need to figure out who that someone is or at least, what it is they are crafting, as we watch society be continually changed toward what we must assume is the intended goal or state of all these changes. The Bible tells us that somebody wants to rule the whole world and it looks as if that is nearly done. Most nations seem to be conforming and coming under the "United" Nations. I say it is more properly described as Coerced Nations, or beaten over the head if you don't - Nations. But that is my silly way of looking at it.

But I would suggest that England was the base from which this whole scheme was launched and continues to be the major base of the real power, the secret shadow power of the world. Do you know of another? Can there by two? World rule requires only 1, with no rival or competition. We can recognize the patterns and pathways that led to where we are. I dare say that if you looked more carefully at who might have urged William to attack England, you might find what has been hidden. Then it would not be hidden anymore. Try to solve who or what is running the world and what they are up to, and maybe the secret powers would not be so secret.

But we have God on our side. God had told us, from the beginning, what the finale would be. A death and destruction like none ever seen before. How could that be and why? Well, I have heard of rumors of those in power wanting to kill off the majority of the world, reducing the population to a small manageable group that would be gentle to the earth and not deplete resources and let the elite keep some slaves to do the work and live the good life. Now that they have or soon will have complete control, they will orchestrate circumstances which will cause many to die, more than ever have before. Perhaps this is what was foretold.

Or it could be that in trying to play God and manipulate nations and forces, they unleash something that gets out of control and would wipe out everything except for God stepping in to stop it. And I don't mean a god in the form of a man, arriving in a UFO and claiming to be God, Christ and who knows what else. He will not be the savior, even though he will preach peace and security. He is actually the one who will cause the death of many.

So we need to be on the lookout for he must surely be near to the time or arriving. This is the ultimate goal toward which the powers that be have been heading us toward. God warned His people to be on the watch and be ready. Our lives will depend on it. There is much to learn from Rome as well and I think you would profit a lot from reading and understanding what took place in Rome. There are far many more lessons there than there are in Crete, for Crete was well behaved and decent. Rome, while very effective, was very brutal, crushing and grinding, as Daniel put it. And from Rome would come a similar sort of beast, fearsome and brutal. Many think the world we live in today has never been more enlightened and wonderful. But that is a smoke screen and a lie. But you won't have to take my word for it. Just wait a little longer and it will all be a plainly manifested reality. It won't be a secret much longer. It only had to be a secret while they are rising to power, trying to avoid alarming or alerting anyone. But once power is fully had, there will be no need or reason to hide anymore.

The well named Man of Sin mentioned by Paul, will have arrived and then we'll see what happens, for the doubter and nay-sayers. But don't you be caught off guard and unprepared. Be alert, prepared and waiting and maybe you can escape the wrath of God as He finally puts an end to the monsters who used and hurt so many billions over the many centuries.

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